The obligation to take positive action to protect people from discrimination from the government and individuals.
What are the two types of segregation?
Dejure and Defacto Segregation
What is the most important attitude in American politics?
What are the reasons for a two party system?
The nature of American Elections, Barriers for third parties, Party ID, and centrist policies
Why was there a decline in party participation between 1960 and 2000?
Generational change and political mobilization
What is Divided Government?
Situation in which one party controls the presidency while the other party controls Congress. In other words, one party controls the executive while the other party controls the legislature.
What was the amendment that gave women the right to vote?
What is the voter calculus?
What is Affirmative Action?
Efforts made by the government to make up for past discrimination.
What are the agents of socialization?
families, social groups, education, major political events, and media and pop culture
What were the first two political parties?
Jeffersonian democrats and federalists
What do parties as organizations participate in?
campaigns and elections; want to help political candidates in their party to win
Why to politicians care about public opinion?
They want to be elected or re-elected.
What is selection bias?
The selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.
What is political socialization?
The learning process by which we acquire attitudes, values and beliefs about government and politics.
What is an independent leaner?
An individual who leans more towards one party or another.
What are political parties?
Group of individuals who organize to win elections, operate government and determine public policy
What is the best predictor of vote choice?
What is rational choice theory?
self interested behavior
What is voter turnout?
The percentage of eligible voters who vote
What are the two types of primaries?
Closed and Open
What is the goal of campaign voting?
What is the Equal Protection Clause?
Part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The clause, which took effect in 1868, provides that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws".
What is the 13th amendment?
What is the 14th amendment?
States cannot pass discrimination laws
What is the 15th amendment?
Allowed African American males the right to vote
What is the Establishment Clause?
The clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress.
What is the free exercise clause?
Pertains to the right to freely exercise one's religion.
What is Dejure segregation?
Segregation by Law
What is De Facto Law?
Segregation by circumstance
What is the most critical component of the civil rights protections?
What is public opinion?
The values and attitude people have about issues, events, and personalities.
What are Values?
Basic principles that inform a person's opinion
What is an attitude?
orientation towards a person or issue
What is party identification?
Psychological attachment to a political party
What is Ideology?
a relatively coherent set of beliefs about the role of government.
What are the two major ideologies in American Politics?
Conservatism and Liberalism
What is a sample?
a subset of a population (400-2000 for polling)
What is a population?
A group of people we are interested in describing.
What is RDD?
Random Digital Dialing
What is Duverger's law ?
Is a principle that asserts that plurality rule elections structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system.
What are the three components of parties?
Parties in the electorate, parties as organization, and parties in Governement
What are parties in the electorate?
Compromised of voters who declare themselves as democrats and Republicans.
What are parties as Organization?
Helps with campaigns and elections; National and Congressional committees
What are parties in Government?
House of Representatives and Senate
What is political participation?
An activity that influences government.
What are two types of citizenship?
Participatory and Guardian
What are the characteristics of someone who is likely to vote?
Older, High Education and Income
What does "U" represent in the voter calculus?
Utility of voting
What does "P" represent in the voter calculus?
Probability of your vote will decide the election.