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30 terms

Chapter 8

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William Ellison
earned his freedom in south carolina by working for wages as a cotton gin maker
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders and familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
Denmark Vesey
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
Gabriel Prosser
unsuccessful slave leader of revolt in Richmond, VA during 1800
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Cotton Gin
machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development
Sold Down The River
phrase used to describe a slave that was sold away from their plantation and family
whipping
most common form of slave punishment
cash crop
farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family
Irish
largest group of immigrants
German
2nd largest group of immigrants
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year. Caused many to immigrate to the United States
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Middle Class
South: yeoman farmers. North: Lawyers, shopkeepers, Artisans
McCormick Reaper
allowed farmers to cut more wheat in less time
Upper Class
South: Plantation Owners. North: Merchants, Bankers, Manufacturers
Francis Cabot Lowell
Visited England and returned to the US to open a mill in Mass. that brought spining and weaving in one building in a town named after him
Lowell Girls
single women who earned $2-4 a week in textile mills for about 4 years. 1837
Strikes
times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions
Labor Unions
an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
Overseers
A person who was hired to watch slaves to see that they did their work.
Drivers
slaves themselves who helped the overseers manage the plantation
Underground Railroad
a network of people who helped thousands of enslaved people escape to the North by providing transportation and hiding places
Gang Labor
working in the fields side-by-side in groups
Spirituals
religious folk songs that blended biblical themes with the realities of slavery
Elias Howe
he invented a home sewing machine
factory system
system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
Sarah Bagley
Lowell girl who urged her co-workers to form a union
yeoman farmers
small farmers in the South