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GACS lclab Biology - Chapter 6- Chemistry in Biology-Vocabulary

GACS lclab Biology - Chapter 6- Chemistry in Biology-Vocabulary
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atom
building block of matter; contains subatomic particles-nuetrons, electrons, and protons
nucleus
center of an atom
proton
positively charged particles
neutron
particles that have no charge
electron
negatively charged particles
element
pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
compound
a pure substance that is formed when two or more different elements that are chemically combined
covalent bond
when two atoms share electrons, such as hydrogen sharing oxygen in water, the force that holds them together is called........
covalent bond
the chemical bond when electrons are shared
molecule
a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds
ion
an atom that gains or loses electrons has an electrical charge and is called .......
ionic bond
a bond with an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms call ions
van der Waals forces
the attraction between molecules caused by positive and negative charges when they become close together
chemical reaction
process by which atom or groups of atoms are reorganized into different substances
reactant
substances that exists before a chemical reaction starts
product
substances formed by chemical reactions
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction
catalyst
a substance that lowers the activation energy level needed to start a chemical reaction
enzymes
special proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions
substrates
reactants that bind enzymes
active site
the specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme
polar molecule
molecules with an uneven distribution of charges
hydrogen bond
a weak interaction involving a hydrogen atom and a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen atom.
mixture
a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties
solution
a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent)
solvent
a substance in which anther substance is being dissolved
solute
the substance that is dissolved in the solvent
acid
substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved
base
a substance that releases hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved
pH
the measure of H+ concentration in a solution
buffer
mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a particular range
macromolucules
large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
polymer
molecules made from repeating units of identical compounds
carbohydrate
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipid
molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen that make up the fats, oils, and waxes
protein
a compound made of small carbon compounds that are called amino acids
amino acid
small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfer
nucleic acid
complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information
nucleotide
small repeating subunits that make up nucleic acid