chapter 17 people and terms
Terms in this set (63)
A German political leader of the twentieth century, born in Austria. Hitler's early program for Germany is contained in his book Mein Kampf. He dreamed of creating a master race of pure Aryans, who would rule for a thousand years as the third German Empire, or Third Reich.
An Italian dictator of the twentieth century. formed a fascist government in Italy in the 1920s and allied Italy with Germany as one of the Axis powers of World War II.
Soviet statesman, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR 1922-53; born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili. His adoptive name Stalin means 'man of steel'.
32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II
A political leader of the twentieth century. A Democrat, was president from 1945 to 1953. In 1944, after representing Missouri in the Senate, was elected vice president under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and became president when Roosevelt died.
Neville Chamberlain was the British prime minister as Great Britain entered World War II. He is known for his policy of "appeasement" toward Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany.
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy
As supreme commander of Allied forces in Western Europe during World War II, led the massive invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe that began on D-Day (June 6, 1944).
was an American general who commanded the Southwest Pacific in World War II (1939-1945), oversaw the successful Allied occupation of postwar Japan and led United Nations forces in the Korean War (1950-1953).
was a senior officer of the United States Army, who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean and European Theaters of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S.
popularly known as the Desert Fox, was a German field marshal of World War II.
Spanish military leader and dictator: chief of state 1939-47; regent of the kingdom of Spain 1947-75.
A. Philip Randolph
was the leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union who, in 1941, proposed a March on Washington to protest racial discrimination in the expanding war industries and the military.
American physicist who directed the Los Alamos, New Mexico, laboratory during the development of the first atomic bomb (1942-1945). After World War II, he became an advocate for the peaceful use of atomic energy and opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb.
In 1939, under the encouragement of Szilárd, Einstein sent a letter to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt urging the study of nuclear fission for military purposes, under fears that the Nazi government would be first to develop atomic weapons. Roosevelt started a small investigation into the matter which eventually became the massive Manhattan Project. Einstein himself did not work on the bomb project, however.
Italian nuclear physicist (in the United States after 1939) who worked on artificial radioactivity caused by neutron bombardment and who headed the group that in 1942 produced the first controlled nuclear reaction (1901-1954)
oveta culp hobby (WAC)
an attorney and a journalist who became the first female commanding officer in the US army. she was commissioned WAC colonel in 1943 and remained it until 1945. Hobby received the military's Distinguished Service Medal for outstanding service to her country during World War II.
Benjamin O. Davis
was an American United States Air Force general and commander of the World War II Tuskegee Airmen.
the killing of millions of Jews and other people by the Nazis during World War II
A form of warfare used by German forces in World War II. troops in vehicles, such as tanks, made quick surprise strikes with support from airplanes. These tactics resulted in the swift German conquest of France in 1940 (see fall of France). is German for "lightning war."
slow moving warfare marked by repeated stalemate
the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
An elite corps of combat troops. is short for Schutzstaffel, which is German for "protective shield". formed originally within the German Nazi party as a bodyguard for Adolf Hitler and other Nazi leaders and led by Heinrich Himmler.
cash and carry
was a policy requested by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at a special session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939, subsequent to the outbreak of war in Europe. It replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1936
the matériel and services supplied by the U.S. to its allies during World War II under an act of Congress passed in 1941: such aid was to be repaid in kind after the war. 2. the two-way transfer of ideas, styles, etc.
Hitler argued that the German race, which he called this, was superior to all others. Hitler was obsessed with 'racial purity'. He used this word to describe his idea of a 'pure German race' or Herrenvolk. The '______ race' had a duty to control the world
the principle of cooperation among nations, for the promotion of their common good, sometimes as contrasted with nationalism, or devotion to the interests of a particular nation.
the German Air Force
is an autobiography by the National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
A governmental restriction on trade for political purposes. The objective is to put pressure on other governments by prohibiting exports to or imports from those countries.
a line of defensive fortifications built before World War II to protect the eastern border of France but easily outflanked by German invaders.
Shortly before World War II, Congress initiated a "strategic materials" program, the National Defense Stockpile, eventually placing it under the General Services Administration. The stockpile's purpose is to ensure that the U.S. military and the civilian industrial base have a secure supply chain for metals and exotic materials that are necessary to manufacture defense systems.
The idea that all nations would aid others in time of crisis usually invasion - however not the case with Abyssinia Czechoslovakia and Poland. The U.S.A failed to join from the start and britain and France was only interested in itself. The collapse of collective security allowed German and Italy to concentrate on its own imperialsitic ambitions
was a pivotal policy statement issued on 14 August 1941, that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. The leaders of the United Kingdom and the United States drafted the work and all the Allies of World War II later confirmed it.
America first committee
was the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Peaking at 800,000 paid members in 450 chapters, it was one of the largest anti-war organizations in American history.
were a series of racial attacks in 1943 during World War II that broke out in Los Angeles, California, during a period when many migrants arrived for the defense effort and newly assigned servicemen flooded the city.
To build tanks, ships, planes, and weapons required massive amounts of metal.
Savings Bonds that were marketed by the United States government as war bonds from 1941 to 1980. Those issued from 1941 to November 1965 accrued interest for 40 years; those issued from December 1965 to June 1980, for 30 years.
a fixed allowance of provisions or food, especially for soldiers or sailors or for civilians during a shortage
international military tribunal
tried the German leaders suspected of committing war crimes
apanese American military
selective service and training act
acetime draft in American
the day (June 6, 1944) in World War II on which Allied forces invaded northern France by means of beach landings in Normandy.
Batan death march
After the April 9, 1942, U.S. surrender of the Bataan Peninsula on the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese during World War II (1939-45), the approximately 75,000 Filipino and American troops on Bataan were forced to make an arduous 65-mile march to prison camps.
the site of the United States' first major battle defeat of the war. General Erwin Rommel was dispatched to North Africa in February 1942, along with the new Afrika Korps, to prevent his Italian Axis partner from losing its territorial gains in the region to the British.
is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. Formally, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
a vegetable garden, especially a home garden, planted to increase food production during a war.
officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a United States Senate committee chaired by U.S. Senator Gerald Nye.
An infamous concentration camp established by the Nazis in Poland.
Anschluss In 1938 Hitler pressured the Austrian chancellor to resign and had him replaced by an Austrian Nazi who invited German troops to move into Austria. A subsequent "plebiscite" resulted in the annexation or Anschluss of Austria to Germany. Hitler thus added the Austrian population of 6 million to Germany. Once again, the Western democracies did nothing.
A large concentration camp established in 1937 by the Nazis located in north-central Germany, near the city of Weimar.
political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
sight of allied invasion of occupied
On 19 February 1945, Marines landed in the Pacific in what was the largest all-Marine battle in history. It was also the bloodiest in Marine Corps history. The US suffered over 7,000 casualties. The capture of Iwo Jima greatly increased the air support and bombing operations against the Japanese home islands. US victory
March 1942, US territory for 40+ years before Japanese took it. Site of the Bataan Death March. "I shall return" - Douglas MacArthur after being forced to retreat.
Essential in securing the Suez Canal which was Britain's lifeline to its Empire, and in securing oil available in North Africa as well as Middle-East. It would also open up a front through Souther Italy onto Germany. For the Axis, it would open a second front onto the Soviet Union through the Middle-East.
Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II, invaded Poland Sept. 1,1939. After signing the non-aggression pact HItler had a surprise attack, German tanks and troops rumbled across the Polish border.
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met here Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Battle of Britain
when German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were as well as search lights
The Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944
United States military base on Hawaii that was bumped by Japan bringing the United States into World War II Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941
The American B-29 that dropped the atomic weapon on the Japanese industrial center at Hiroshima. Two days later the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. And the following day, another American plane dropped another atomic weapon-this time on the city of Nagasaki.
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