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GACS lclab Honors Biology - Chapter 3 - Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems - Section 3.3 - Aquatic Ecosystems

GACS lclab - Harsh - Honors Biology - Chapter 3 - Section 3.3 - Aquatic Ecosystems
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aquatic ecosystems
grouped based on abiotic factors such as water flow, distance from shore, salinity and latitude
major freshwater ecosystems
include ponds, lakes, streams, rivers and wetlands
2.5 percent of Earth's water
freshwater
headwater
water in rivers and streams flows in one direction, beginning at a source called
mouth
where flowing water empties into a larger body of water
sediment
material that is deposited by water, wind or glaciers
lake or pond
an inland body of standing water
oligotrophich
nutrient poor lakes, often found in mountains
eutropic
nutrient rich lakes, found at lower altitudes
lakes and ponds
divided into 3 zones based on the amount of sunlight that penetrates that water
littoral zone
area of lakes/ponds closest to the shore
limnetic zone
open water area that is well lit and is dominated by plankton
plankton
free-floating photosynthetic autotrophs that live in freshwater or marine ecosystems
profundal zone
deepest areas of a large lake
transitional aquatic ecosystems
aquatic environments that are a combination of two or more different environments;
wetlands
areas of land such as marshes, swamps and bogs that are saturated with water and that suport aquatic plants
estuaries
an ecosystem that is formed where freshwater form a river or a stream merges with salt water from the ocean
estuaries
places of transition - from fresh to salt water and from land to sea
salt marshes
transitional ecosystems similar to estuaries
intertidal zone
narrow band whre the ocean meets land
intertidal zone
divided into vertical zones: low-tide zone, mid-tide zone, high-tide zone, spray zone
spray zone
area of intertidal zone that is dry most of the time
spray zone
only during high tides that this part of shoreline is sprayed with salt water and few plants & animals are able to live in this environment
high-tide zone
under water only during high tides
high-tide zone
receives more water than the spray zone, so more plants & animals are able to live there
mid-tide zone
undergoes severe disruption twice a day as tides cover & uncover the shoreline with water
mid-tide zone
organisms in this area must adapt to long periods of air and water
low-tide zone
covered wth water unless the tide is unusually ow
low-tide zone
most populated area of the intertidal zone
photic zone
also called the euphotic zone
photic zone
area to a depth of about 200M of the pelagic zone
photic zone
shallow enough that light can penetrate
aphotic zone
below the photic zone; where sun is unable to penetrate
zones in the open ocean
pelagic zone, abyssal zone and benthic zone
photic zone
part of pelagic zone
aphotic zone
part of pelagic zone
photic zone
animals living here include may species of fish, sea turtles, jellyfish, whales and dolphins
aphotic zone
remains on constant darkness and generall y is cold, but has thermal layering with a mixing of warm and cold ocean currents
aphotic zone
organisms that depend on light cannot live in this zone
benthic zone
area along the ocean floor that consists of sand, silt, and dead organisms
benthic zone
many species of fishes, octopuses and squids live in this zone
abyssal zone
deepest region of the ocean; water is very cold
abyssal zone
organisms in this zone rely on food materials that drift down from the zones above
abyssal zone
On the seafloor along the boundaries of the Earth's plates, hydrothermal vents spew large amounts of hot water, hydrogen sulfide and other minerals in this zone
coral reefs
widely distributed in warm shallow marine waters
coral reefs
form natural barriers along continents that protect shorelines from erosion
corals
dominant organism in coral reefs
corals
soft-bodied invertebrates that live in the stonelike structures
zooxanthellae
symbiotic relationship coral polyps have with algae; algae provide corals with food & in turn, coral provides protection and access to light for he algae
corals
feed by extending tentacles to obtain plankton from the water
coral reef animals
microoorganisms, sea slugs, octopuses, sea urchins, sea stars, and fishes