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30 terms

GACS lclab - Honors Biology - Chapter 4 - Section 4.1 - Population Dynamics

GACS lclab - Harsh - Honors Biology - Chapter 4 - Section 4.1 - Population Dynamics
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population density
the number of organisms per unit area
dispersion
the pattern of spacing of a population within an area
uniform, clumped groups, random
3 main types of dispersion
black bears
usually disperse in uniform arrangement
american bison
dispersed in clumped groups or herds
white-tailed deer
dispersed randomly with unpredictable spacing
food
a primary factor in in the pattern of dispersion
density-independent factor
any factor in the environment that does not depend on the number of members in a population per unit area
density-independent factor
usually abiotic and include natural phenomena such as weather events--drought or flooding
density-dependent factor
any factor in the environment that depends on the number of members in a populaton per unit area
density-dependent factor
usually biotic factors such as predation, disease, parasites and competition
population biologist
studies the characteristics of populations, such as growth, size, distribution, or genetics.
density-dependent factors
disease, competition, parasites
population growth rate
explains how fast a given population grows
natality
the birthrate or the number of individuals born in a given time period
mortality
the number of deaths that occur in the population during a given time period
emigration
term ecologists use to describe the number of individuals moving away from a population
immigration
term ecologists use to describe the number of individuals moving into a population
logistic growth
when a population exhibits logistic growth
carrying capacity
when a population levels off at a limit
expotential growth model
population grows slow at first , then increases rapidly
lag phase
in the expotential growth model, when the population grows slow at first
logistic growth model
populations growth slows or stops following expontential growth, at the populations carrying capacity
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals in a species that an environment can support for the long term
carrying capacity
limited by the energy, water oxygen and nutrients available
r-strategist
an adaption for living in an environment where fluctuation in biotic or abiotic factors occur
r-strategist
usually have short life spans and produce many offspring
k-strategist
generally is a larger organism that has a long life span, produces few off-spring and whose population reaches equilibrium at the carrying capacity
reproductive strategy of an r-strategist
produce as many offspring as possible in a short period of time to take advantge of some environmental factors
reproductive strategy of an k-strategist
produce only a few offspring that have a better chance of living to reproductive age because of the energy, resources and time invested in care for the young