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GU Defect: Hydrocele

Presence of fluid in the scrotum from a variety of etiologies

GU Defect: Chordee

Downward curvature of the penis; caused by normal skin being replaced with a fibrous band of tissue

GU Defect: Hypospadias

Urethral meatus located on ventral surface of glans of penis

GU Defect: Epispadias

Urethral meatus located on dorsal surface of penile shaft

GU Defect: Cryptorchidism

Undescended testes; Failure of one or both testes to descend normally through the inguinal canal into the scrotum

GU Defect: Exstrophy of the bladder

Externalization of the bladder

What severe defect is associated with exstrophy of the bladder?

Open pubic arch

GU Defects: Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

Abnormal retrograde flow of bladder urine into the ureters

Primary VUR is caused due to a...

Congenital anomaly

Secondary VUR results from...

Acquired condition (such as UTI or obstruction)

Why does residual urine from the ureters remain in the bladder until the next void?

WIth each void bladder urine is swept up the ureters and remains after voiding

What is enuresis?


What are the two types of enuresis?

Primary & Secondary

What is primary enuresis?

Child has never been dry for extended periods; occurs at least twice a week for 3 months

What is secondary enuresis?

Onset of bed-wetting after a period of urinary continence

When can enuresis occur?

Nocturnal, diurnal or both

GU Defects: Nephrotic Syndrome

It is the most common presentation of glomerular injury in children

What ages is Nephrotic syndrome predominantly present?

2-7 years

S/S Nephrotic Syndrome

massive proteinuria,

Nephrotic Syndrome: Monitor diet

Restrict salt & fluid during edema phase

Nephrotic Syndrome: Medications

Corticosteroids, diuretics, albumin

Nephrotic Syndrome: Monitoring Fluid Volume

Assess edema, daily weight measurement, strict I&O, assess for dehydration (w/ diuretic admin), monitor lab values

S/S Acute Glomerulonephritis

edema (espec periorbital),

UTI: Treatment & Management with Fluids

100 ml/kg

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