Pediatrics: Genitourinary Tract
GU Defect: Hydrocele
Presence of fluid in the scrotum from a variety of etiologies
GU Defect: Chordee
Downward curvature of the penis; caused by normal skin being replaced with a fibrous band of tissue
GU Defect: Hypospadias
Urethral meatus located on ventral surface of glans of penis
GU Defect: Epispadias
Urethral meatus located on dorsal surface of penile shaft
GU Defect: Cryptorchidism
Undescended testes; Failure of one or both testes to descend normally through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
GU Defect: Exstrophy of the bladder
Externalization of the bladder
What severe defect is associated with exstrophy of the bladder?
Open pubic arch
GU Defects: Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
Abnormal retrograde flow of bladder urine into the ureters
Primary VUR is caused due to a...
Secondary VUR results from...
Acquired condition (such as UTI or obstruction)
Why does residual urine from the ureters remain in the bladder until the next void?
WIth each void bladder urine is swept up the ureters and remains after voiding
What is enuresis?
What are the two types of enuresis?
Primary & Secondary
What is primary enuresis?
Child has never been dry for extended periods; occurs at least twice a week for 3 months
What is secondary enuresis?
Onset of bed-wetting after a period of urinary continence
When can enuresis occur?
Nocturnal, diurnal or both
GU Defects: Nephrotic Syndrome
It is the most common presentation of glomerular injury in children
What ages is Nephrotic syndrome predominantly present?
S/S Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic Syndrome: Monitor diet
Restrict salt & fluid during edema phase
Nephrotic Syndrome: Medications
Corticosteroids, diuretics, albumin
Nephrotic Syndrome: Monitoring Fluid Volume
Assess edema, daily weight measurement, strict I&O, assess for dehydration (w/ diuretic admin), monitor lab values
S/S Acute Glomerulonephritis
edema (espec periorbital),
UTI: Treatment & Management with Fluids