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Peripheral Nervous System PNS
12 cranial, 31 spinal nerves, divided into somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
divided into sympathetic (responds to stress) and parasympathetic (constricts pupils, slows heartbeat dilates blood vessels, stimulates digestion)
paired halves of the cerebrum, each hemisphere is divided into 4 major lobes, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
posterior part of the brain that coordinates the voluntary muscle movements and maintains balance
part of the brain located just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat and blood vessel size
located at end of spinal cord, (group of nerve fibers below 2nd lumbar vertebra) carries all the nerves that affect the lower part and limbs and serves as the pathway for impulses going to and from brain
consists of 3 layers of connective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
1st outermost- dura mater
2nd layer- arachnoid membrane
3rd layer- pia mater
Neurological diseases of meninges
congenital, degenerative (movement and seizure), infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, vascular
part of the peripheral nervous sytem that controls automatic body function; activate under stress
Puncture, Twists, or Burr Holes
deal with conditions that may require holes or openings be made into the brain to relieve pressure, insertion of monitoring devices, placement of tubing, injection of contrast material, or to drain a hemorrhage
procedures that deal with incision into the skull with possible removal of a portion of the skull to open the operative site to the surgeon. Based on site and condition, many procedures are bundled. Additional grafting is reported seperately
area at base of cranium where the lobes of the brain rest. Procedures are divided on approach, definitive and reconstruction/ repair procedure
Aneurysm, Arteriovenous Malformation, or Vascular Disease
arteriovenous malformation is a condition in which the arteries and veins are not in the correct anatomical position, usually congenital. codes are divided on the basis of approach and method
Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts CSF
drainage device, category describes all the various types of shunting procedures including placement and subsequent repair, replacement, and removal.
Spine and Spinal Cord
includes codes for injections, laminectomies, excisions, repairs, and shunting, based on condition and approach
spinal tap obtains cerebrospinal fluid by insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region
chemical denervation (alcohol or glycerol injection) radiofrequency (passes a current through an electrode) cryogenic surgery (inserting a probe into tissue with fluoroscopy guidance and freezing a region of tissue)
Extracranial Nerves, Peripheral Nerves, and Autonomic Nerves
common procedure: injection, destruction, decompression, and suture/repair. code assigned according to type of nerve being injected for nerve block introduction/injection of anesthetic agent
5th cranial nerve, sensory nerve that supplies the face, teeth, mouth and nasal cavity, and motor nerve that supplies the muscles of mastication (chewing)
7th cranial nerve, consists of large motor root (supplies muscles of facial expression) and smaller root (nervus intermendius) that contains the sensory and parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve
Greater occipital nerve
spinal nerve orginating from the cervical spinal nerve C2, supplies stimuli to the scalp, over the ears, and the parotid gland
10th cranial nerve, supplies sensory fibers to the ear, tongue, pharynx, and larynx and motor fibers to the pharnx, larynx, and esophagus
plexus in the posterior cervical region that is formed by the dorsal rami of the first three or four cervical spinal nerves
originates from the brachial plexus at th axilla (armpit) sensory information from the shoulder joint and the inferior region of the deltoid muscle
orgin in the brachial plexus at the C5-C6 level that descends through suprascapular and spineiglenoid notches and supplies acromioclavicular and shoulder joints and supraspinatus muscles
orginates in the sacral plexus at the S2-S4 and sometimes S5, divides into the perineal nerve and the dorsal nerve of the penis distributed to the muscles, skin, and erectile tissue of perineum
decompression (freeing) of intact nerves, most common procedure is carpal tunnel release (median nerve and the transverse carpal ligament of the wrist are surgically released
Composed of a right and left lobe on either side of the trachea; secretes 80% T4 and 20% T3
Tissue rich in capillaries that act as receptors located near the bifurcation of the carotid arteries
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