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Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Treaty by which Pope Alexander VI divided new lands between Portugal and Spain. Portugal got Africa (and Brazil) and Spain got New World

John Cabot

Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)


the explorer who traveled across America's southwest in search of the fabled "seven cities of gold"

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer/pirate who circumnavigated the globe from 1577 to 1580 and was sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold

Roanoke Colony

(1585-88) called the "Lost Colony.", the first English colony was funded by Sir Walter Raleigh, unsuccessful ships disappeared or turned back


First permanent English settlement in North America

John Smith

English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.


a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)


Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia. father of pocahontas

House of Burgesses (1619)

The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619

Set a precedent for future parliaments to be established

Headright System

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Plymouth Colony

colony formed by the Pilgrims when they arrived at Plymouth Rock in 1620

Miles Standish

English colonist in America.leader of pilgrims.

William Bradford

United States printer (born in England) whose press produced the first American prayer book and the New York City's first newspaper (1663-1752)


Native American who helped with relation between the natives and the Pilgrims.


Wampanoag leader who who aided the Pilgrims (1580-1661)


Native American leader and friend of the early colonists. He was the first to sell land to the Pilgrims (1625).

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony ("City Upon a Hill")

wanted to act as model city for others. strict calvinists, covenant with god. serve puritan church. John Winthrop

John Winthrop

Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, envisioned colony as a "city upon a hill"

The Puritan Migration

Between the years of 1630 and 1640, a large migration of Puritans to Massachusetts Colony took place. The vigorous persecution by Charles I of religious dissenters brought 225,000 Puritans to America.

Maryland Toleration Act of 1649

Mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)

George Calvert

title was Lord Baltimore; founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics

Roger Williams/Rhode Island

1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Navigation Acts (1650-1696)

British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.

Half-Way Covenant

a practice among the Congregational churches of New England, between 1657 and 1662, of permitting baptized persons of moral life and orthodox faith to enjoy all the privileges of church membership, save the partaking of the Lord's Supper. They were also allowed to present their children for baptism.

New Amsterdam/New York

Dutch trading post taken by British invasion quick in 1664 and renamed it new york

Restoration Colonies

King Charles' pay back to his supporters (restorers) with land in America. Include Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

Great Awakening

a religious movement that became widespread in the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s

John Berkeley

Co-founded New Jersey with George Carteret

Georgia Colony

founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe; settled by debtors and unfortunates; border between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas; religious toleration to all Protestant Christians but not Catholics; first proprietary than royal

James Oglethorpe

Founder of Georgia

Edmund Andros

He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.

Pequot War

The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

King Philip's War

War in 1670s between Native Americans and English settlers living in New England.

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