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55 terms

Science: Section III

The Space Race
STUDY
PLAY
When did space become a dramatic arena for competition?
late 1950s
Who launched Sputnik and when?
The Soviets launched Sputnik on October 4, 1957
what is Sputnik Russian for?
traveler
What was the world's first artificial satellite and the first man-made object to be placed into the Earth's orbit?
Sputnik
What is the name of the Satellite launched by the U.S. in 1958?
Explorer I
What is National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)?
a federal agency dedicated to space exploration
What year did the Soviet launch Luna 2 (the first space probe to hit the moon)?
1959
When did Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin become the first person to orbit Earth?
April 1961
When did Alan Shepard become first American in space (not in orbit)?
May 5, 1961
____________ became the first American to orbit Earth in ___________.
John Glenn, February 1962
from 1961-1964 NASA's budget was increased ___%.
500
When did the U.S. launch Apollo 8- The first manned space mission to orbit the Moon?
December 1968
Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins set off on the ________ space mission (the first lunar landing attempt) on _______________.
Apollo 11, July 16, 1969
When did Neil Armstrong become the first man to walk on the moon?
July 20, 1969
Who "won" the space race?
U.S.
How did the U.S. respond to Sputnik?
they downplayed its significance
Who was the U.S President when Sputnik was launched?
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Who was Nikita Khrushchev?
Russian leader at the time Sputnik was launched
Who was the Democrat that won the 1960 Presidential campaign largely due to the "missile gap"?
John F. Kennedy
Sputnik II was __ times heavier than Sputnik I.
6
What animal was on Sputnik II?
a dog named Laika
What signaled the beginning of the space race?
the orbiting of Sputnik I
When was space exploration at its peak?
mid-sixties
what is another name for the narrow strip centered on the lunar equator?
The Apollo Zone
April 26, 1962
Ranger 4 became the first American spacecraft to reach the lunar surface when it crashed into the Moon's far side
July 28, 1964
Ranger 7 was launched-first successful Ranger
Which was the last Ranger in the series?
Ranger 9
Where on the moon is the safest landing place?
The Apollo Zone
Who was responsible for Lunar Orbiter's camera?
Kodak
Lunar Orbiter 1
Launched on August 10, 1966, had problems with the V/H Sensor, blurring most of the high-resolution images
Lunar Orbiter 2
Launched on November 6, 1966, its main target was the Apollo Zone. This spacecraft returned incredibly sharp photographs of the lunar surface
Lunar Orbiter 3
Launched on February 5, 1967, like Lunar Orbiter 2 it also returned high-quality images of the Apollo Zone
What was the goal of Lunar Orbiter 4?
To photograph the entire near side of the Moon
The combined images of all 5 Lunar Orbiter missions covered __% of the moon's surface
99%
Sergei Korolev
Soviet Union's anonymous Chief Designer of Rockets and Space Systems
Surveyor I
Launched on May 30, 1966, reached the Moon at 2:17 A.M. on June 2, 1966, making it the first, true soft lunar landing
Surveyor 2
launched on September 20, 1966 toward Central Bay-failure
Surveyor 3
launched on April 17, 1967
Surveyor 4
lost all communications with Earth during the main retro fire on July 14, 1967
Surveyor 5
launched on September 8, 1967, aimed toward the Sea of Tranquillity
What were Surveyor 3 and 5's main objectives?
to sample the local regolith
What were the most abundent elements in samples taken from the moon?
oxygen, silicon and aluminum
Which was the first spacecraft to lift off from the moon?
Surveyor 6
When was Vostok 1 launched?
April 12, 1961
How long was Gagarin's flight on Vostok 1?
108 minutes
The point where the satellite or the Moon reaches its greatest seperation from Earth is known as what?
apogee
The point where the satellite or the Moon makes its closest approach to Earth is called what?
perigee
Who was the cosmonaut aboard Vostok 2?
Gherman Titov
Vostok 2 was launched on _________ and stayed in orbit for __ hours and __ minutes.
August 7, 25 hours, 18 minutes
Who was the first woman and first civilan in space?
Valentina Tereshkova
What were the three objectives of Project Mercury?
1) to orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth
2) to investigate man's ability to function in space
3) to recover both man and spacecraft safely
The _________, which had its first launch in August ____, was the first operational U.S. ballistic missile.
Redstone, 1953
Who was the first American to see a sunrise and sunset from space?
John Glenn
The end of Project Mercury came with the May 15,_____ launch of Gordon Cooper and his _____7 capsule.
1963, Faith
At the end of Gordon Cooper's flight the _____________ systems failed.
automatic flight