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4 kinds of emotional appeals
1. appeals to deep physical or psychological needs
2. appeals to positive and negative emotions
3. appeals to attitudes and opinions
4. appeals to psychological states of balance/consonance or imbalance/dissonance
4 factors Emotional appeals rely on (Process or Emotional Premises)
1. human needs
2. human emotions
4. the psychic comfort/discomfort people feel over their decisions.
used to discover why consumers respond as they do and to zero in on those needs.
Packard's Hidden needs
Packard argued that motivation research seeks to learn what influences people in making choices
Motivation researchers assume 3 things
1. people dont always know what they want
2. you can't rely on what they say they like/dislike
3. they don't usually act logically.
Packard's Compelling Needs
1. need for emotional security
2. need for reassurance of wealth
3. need for ego gratification
4. need for love objects
5. need for creative outlets
6. need for a sense of power
7. need for roots
8. need for immortality
Feig's hot buttons
verbal or visual appeals that cause receivers to become emotionally involved in a product rather than responding rationally.
Need for love objects
a feeling of caring for someone or something - Example "empty nesters" fill voids with pets, etc.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
bottom to top: basic physiological needs, safety/security needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self actualization needs.
Weaker needs emerge only after stronger ones have been filled. This aspect of Maslow's theory was never proven.
self actualization needs
top of the pyramid, the achievement of one's full potential. Example: "Be all you can be join the army"
2 dimensions of the Emotion process premise
physiological - bodily changes as you react to stimulus
cognitive - psychological changes as you react to stimulus
5 components to emotions
1. cognitive evaluation of a situation
2. physiological arousal
3. motor expression - what we physically do about it
4. motivational intention - what we're prepared to do
5. a feeling state in the subject
- a psychological tendency expressed by favor or disfavor.
- serve as major premise in enthymemes
- make us ready to take action
the intention to behave
when a person tells you they indend to act they are more prone to actually act.
4 stages that info must go through to effect persuasion
3 functions of attitudes
1. a cognitive or knowledge function b/c we aren't born with attitudes, we must learn them.
2. affective funtion, influences our emotions and feelings
3. behavioral function, prepare us to take certain actions.
Patterns of Persuasion - ELM
1. many variables affect attitude change
2. motivation/ability to elaborate decreases, peripheral cues become important
3. motivation/ability to elaborate increases, peripheral cues lose impact.
4. persuader affects consumer by encouraging/discouraging examination of the argument or claim.
5. arguments from the central route predict actual behavior best.
When we are confronted with information that creates dissonance with our current beliefs we often try to build consonance through some or all of these steps:
1. Revalue our initial belief
2. Revalue the source of information input
3. Perceive the information as stronger than it is
4. Remember the most positive parts
5. Seek out more supporting information
5 sources of Dissonance
1. loss of group prestige
2. economic loss
3. loss of personal prestige
4. uncertainty of prediction
5. sence of guilt
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