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Key Terms and Ideas from Larson's Chapter 7 concerning Psychological and Process Premises

4 kinds of emotional appeals

1. appeals to deep physical or psychological needs
2. appeals to positive and negative emotions
3. appeals to attitudes and opinions
4. appeals to psychological states of balance/consonance or imbalance/dissonance

two types of persuasive appeal

logical and emotional

4 factors Emotional appeals rely on (Process or Emotional Premises)

1. human needs
2. human emotions
3. attitudes
4. the psychic comfort/discomfort people feel over their decisions.

Process Premises

1. needs
2. emotions
3. attitudes
4. consistency

Motivation research

used to discover why consumers respond as they do and to zero in on those needs.

Packard's Hidden needs

Packard argued that motivation research seeks to learn what influences people in making choices

Motivation researchers assume 3 things

1. people dont always know what they want
2. you can't rely on what they say they like/dislike
3. they don't usually act logically.

Packard's Compelling Needs

1. need for emotional security
2. need for reassurance of wealth
3. need for ego gratification
4. need for love objects
5. need for creative outlets
6. need for a sense of power
7. need for roots
8. need for immortality

Feig's hot buttons

verbal or visual appeals that cause receivers to become emotionally involved in a product rather than responding rationally.

Need for emotional security

feelings of anxiety about the future, personal welfare, or safety.

Need for reassurance of wealth

a feeling of being valued by others

Need for ego gratification

feelings of self importance

Need for love objects

a feeling of caring for someone or something - Example "empty nesters" fill voids with pets, etc.

Need for a sense of power

need for an extension of one's percieved power, bigger the car the better

Need for roots

feelings of homesickness and yearning for family-centered activities.

Need for immortality

desire to avoid our own mortality.

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

bottom to top: basic physiological needs, safety/security needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self actualization needs.


Weaker needs emerge only after stronger ones have been filled. This aspect of Maslow's theory was never proven.

basic physiological needs

bottom level strongest needs, needed to survive

security needs

second level, ability to continue to fill the basic needs of live.

belongingness/love needs

need to interact with others/identify with some group

esteem needs

the need to be valued by the members of the groups with which we affiliate

self actualization needs

top of the pyramid, the achievement of one's full potential. Example: "Be all you can be join the army"

2 dimensions of the Emotion process premise

physiological - bodily changes as you react to stimulus
cognitive - psychological changes as you react to stimulus

5 components to emotions

1. cognitive evaluation of a situation
2. physiological arousal
3. motor expression - what we physically do about it
4. motivational intention - what we're prepared to do
5. a feeling state in the subject

Emotions used to persuade

fear, guilt, anger, pride, happiness and joy


- a psychological tendency expressed by favor or disfavor.
- serve as major premise in enthymemes
- make us ready to take action

the intention to behave

when a person tells you they indend to act they are more prone to actually act.

4 stages that info must go through to effect persuasion

1. attention
2. comprehension
3. retention
4. action

2 categories of attitudes

1. attitudes toward objects or issues
2. attitudes toward situations


Resemble beliefs but not as strongly held. They can change overnight.

3 functions of attitudes

1. a cognitive or knowledge function b/c we aren't born with attitudes, we must learn them.
2. affective funtion, influences our emotions and feelings
3. behavioral function, prepare us to take certain actions.

Patterns of Persuasion - ELM

1. many variables affect attitude change
2. motivation/ability to elaborate decreases, peripheral cues become important
3. motivation/ability to elaborate increases, peripheral cues lose impact.
4. persuader affects consumer by encouraging/discouraging examination of the argument or claim.
5. arguments from the central route predict actual behavior best.

Key to ELM



expectations about future events ought to live up to or what we expect.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

We try to reduce tension rather than totally resolving it.

Festinger's consonance

exists when 2 pieces of info fit together and reinforce one another.

Building Consonance

When we are confronted with information that creates dissonance with our current beliefs we often try to build consonance through some or all of these steps:
1. Revalue our initial belief
2. Revalue the source of information input
3. Perceive the information as stronger than it is
4. Remember the most positive parts
5. Seek out more supporting information

5 sources of Dissonance

1. loss of group prestige
2. economic loss
3. loss of personal prestige
4. uncertainty of prediction
5. sence of guilt

3 sources of consonance

1. reassurance of security
2. demonstration of predicatbility
3. the use of rewards

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