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166 terms

Physiology

Quiz questions from Laurel's notecards
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Homeostasis
Regulation around set points, maintaining a stable environment
Homeostasis
Compensatory responses/ negative feedback
2/3
___ Fraction of cell is intracellular fluid
1/3
___ fraction of cell is extracellular fluid
extracellular
Interstitial fluid is contained in the intracellular/extracellular fluid
Diffusion
Solute movement on chemical concentration gradient (High to low)
Osmosis
Water movement from hi to low conentration
Hydrophilic
Polar slats and ions are hydro philic/phobic
hydrophobic
Non-polar lipids and fats are hydro philicphobic
Basic
Ammonia is acidic/basic
tissues
Cells are organized into:
organs
Tissues are organized into:
organ systems
Organs are organized into:
set points
Regulation of body's internal environment around _____________
negative feedback
Homeostasis uses compensatory responses also known as: (this is to "make up for")
Exchange cells
The cells of the kidney that remove waste, of the luns that exchange oxygen, and the digestive cells for nutrients are called:
diffusion
The movement of solute molecules
Osmosis
the movement of Water molecules
pH
Buffers minimize ___ change
nucleotides
DNA, RNA cAMP, and ATP are examples of:
nucleotides
These transmit info and provide energy from bonds
Carbohydrates
These are polar/ water elements that provide energy, structure, and cell identifiers
Polar
Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar
hydrophobic
Lipids are hydro phobic/philic
nonpolar
Lipids are polar/nonpolar
less
Saturated fatty acids are less/more flexible than unsaturated fatty acids
less
Unsaturated fats have more/less energy than saturated fats
saturated
Trans fats behave like ________ fats
triglyceride
1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids =
triglycerides
Body fat is found in the form of
Phospholipid
1 phosphate group + 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids =
phospholipid
These have a polar head and nonpolar tail and are found in membranes
cholesterol
Known as a steroid lipid
cholesterol
These provide structure and flexibility and are made in the liver so we don't need to eat them
nonpolar
Cholesterol is polar/nonpolar
protein
These are very sensitive to pH and temperature changes
polar
Proteins are polar/nonpolar
protein
These are enzymes that are transporters/carriers in membranes
Cell membranes
AKA phospholipid bilayer
ICF
More K+ is found in the ICF/ECF
ECF
More Na+, Cl-, and Ca+ are found in the ICF, ECF
cyclic adenosine mono phosphate
cAMP stands for:
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP stands for
soluble
Carbohydrates are generally soluble/insoluble in water
nonpolar
Generally hydrophobic= polar/nonpolar
9
Fats have __ calories/gram
4
Carbs and Protien have __ calories/gram
triglycerides
fats in the form of _____________ are te primary form of stored energy
double
Saturated fatty acids have no __________ bonds
some
Unsaturated fatty acids have ______ double bonds
Less
Unsaturated fats have ___ energy than saturated fats
Triglycerides
____________ are the primary "body fat"
blood vessels
Where does cholesterol eaten accumulate?
Cholesterol
_____________ is a steroid lipid produced in the liver and other organs of animals
Phospholipid
This is the major component of biological membranes
Slightly soluble; polar; nonpolar
How soluble in water are phospholipids (due to glycerol-phosphate end being ____ and the fatty acids being ______
amino acids
Proteins are composed of:
Protein
This is the source of Nitrogen in our diets
polypeptides
Strings of amino acids are
carbohydrates, phospholipids, proteins
What biomolecules are likely to be soluble in polar solvents such as water? (3)
Lipids, fatty acids
Which biomolecules are likely to be soluble in nonpolar solvents such as oil? (2)
Meat tissue because cholesterol is important in cell membrane structure, but the fatty rind can become cholesterol
Which has more cholesterol, the muscle "meat" tissue of a pork chop, or the fatty rind and why?
bilayer
Phospholipids in water form a:
cell membranes
These are mostly lipid and protein with a small amount of carbohydrate (Unsaturated fatty acids for flexibility)
Both
Will cholesterol increase or decrease membrane flexibility?
Hydrophobic
Is cholesterol hydro philic/phobic?
Enzymes; transporters
Proteins in membranes act as (2)
Cell identifiers
Carbs on membranes usually serve as: (important component of glycoproteins and glycolipids
selectively permeable
Membranes are ____________: some substances can pass through, some cannot
Small; lipophilic
_____ and _____ substances can diffuse through the bilayer between phospholipids using simple diffusion
Polar; charged; large
Impermeable substances are ________, _________, and _________
Simple diffusion
______________ is when a selectively permeable membraneallows substances to pass straight through the membrane
Do
Non-polar, small molecules and lipids do/ do not pass freely via simple diffusion
Protein
Facilitated diffusion requires a:
Channel
_______ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They are selectively permeable to size, charge, and shape
Transporter
________ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They bind to the molecule causing a conformational change an release the molecule on the other side
Cotransporters
These are another form of proteins that are required for facilitated diffusion: This is when one molecule often moves down the concentration gradint and another against it: Like carpooling
Symporters
cotransporters moving in the same direction
Antiports
Cotransporters moving in opposite directions
Uniport
One molecule of glucose moved down the concentration gradient that is mountained by conversin of gucose
Cotransport
Symport where sodium (Na+) moves into cell by cncentration gradien and glucose moves into cell against concentration gradient
1. Temperature gradient
2. Conentration gradient
3. Carrier saturation
4. Antagonists block binding sites
5. Agonists bind elsewhere to increase transporter reactions
5 things that Affect Rate of Facilitated Diffusion
Up-regulation
The regulaton with an increased number of carrier proteins
Down-regulation
The regultion with a decreased number of carrier proteins
Antagonists
These block binding sites
Agonists
These bind elsewhere o increase transporter reaction
ATP
Primary Active transport requires:
against
Primay Active transport moves things with/against the concentration gradient
Up
The Na/K pump moves both substances up/down the concentratio gradient
Secondary Active Transport
This involves 2 carrier proteins
Simple diffusion
The passive transport mechanism, fueled only by kinetic energy in the molecule
Higher; greater
Higher/Lower temperatures and lower/greater concentration differences lead to faster diffusion
K+
Which ion is larger: K+ or Na+?
Facilitated diffusion
This uses membrane proteins which temporarily bin the substance being transported: Binding leads to a confrmational change, the substance is released to the other side of the membrane: Follows the concentration gradient
Glucose Trasporters
AKA GLUT transporters
Insulin
This causes cells to take up more glucose
Primary Active Transport
this uses energy in ATP to inuce a conformational change in a transporter protein: moves substances AGAINST their concentration gradients
Osmoregulation
The regulation of the distribution and amount of water andions in the ECF
hyperosmotic
If cells become hyper/hypo-osmotic, cells shrink
bad
Is cells shrinking good or bad?
60-70
__-__% of body weight is water
2/3
What fraction of total body water is in ICF
Hyposmotic
When cells are ____________, cells expand and burst
Increases
Blood pressure ___________ when you become very hydrated
Decreases
Blood pressure ___________ when yu become dehydrated
Increases
When cells become hyperosmotc from eating salt, blood pressure ___________
Decreases
When cells become hyperosmotic from losing water, blood pressure ___________
Skin
This prevents water loss from the body
Kidney
Function of this organ can reduce or increase water an ion loss
Behavioral thirst mechanisms
The only way to gain water
Skin
The largest organ in your body
1. Sensory Information
2. Heat gain/loss
3. Barrier to prevent water loss and bacterial invasion
Three Functions of the skin
Dermis
The ______ or dermal laer is a connective tissue holding blood vessels, nerve endings, muscles, and exocrine glands
Deral Exocrine glands
This is composed of sebaceous gland, sweat glands, and apocine glands
Sebaceous glands
these secrete oils which are antibacterial and waterproofing
Apocrine glands
These secrete oils that bacteria convert to odors, scent glands
Sweat glands
These secrete hyposmotic fluid (mostly water) toaid heat loss, thermoregulation
keratin
Epithelial cellson the surface are dead and flled with_________ protein
Keratin Protein
These fibersprotect againt water loss, mechanical damage
1. Burned off epidermis: decreased keratin
2. Dermis burned
3. Burns epi and dermal layer and more
Why might burn victims develop dehydration
1. Osmoregulation
2. Regulates pH
3. Works with cardiovasculat system to regulate blood pressure
4. Hormone Production
5. Removal of metabolic waste
6. Removal of xenobiotics, drugs
Functions of the kidneys
Erythropoietin
The kidney produces this hormone for red blood cell production
Aldosterone
The kidneys reglate this chemical whic affects ion flux in the rnal system
Nitrogenous waste
This toxic waste is removed by the renal system: Protion catabolism leaves ammonia, enzyms of the Urea Cycle in the liver converts N wste into urea, and uea from the liver enters blood, is transported to the kidney, which excretes it in urine
Urea
Which is less toxic: amonia or urea
Urobilinogen
The kidneys remove this chemical prodces from hemoglobin breakdown: It is an oxygen carrier and is yellow
Hormones
The kidneys also remove these in addition to urobilinogen and nitrogenous waste
Filtrate
Fluid in the kidney is initially called:
hyperosmotic; urine
After processingi the kidney, filtrate is _________ and is called ___________
Ureter; bladder; urethra
Urin enters the ______ and is stored in the ______. Urine eaves the bladder through the ______.
Micturation
This controls fluid loss thrugh the urethra: controls the muscles
Nephrons
Kidneys are composed of tubes called ______
Cortical; cortex
The _____ or _____ region is the surface of the kidney
Medullary; medulla
The _______ or _______ is the center of the kidney
glomerulus
The renal artery branches ino arterioles, and forms a ________ at each nephron
Bowman's capsule
This part of the nephron and glomerulus of the kidney
Renal corpuscle
This is composed of the Bowman's capsule and it filters the blood in the glomerulus
Lumen
This is the inside of the tubes of the kidny
Corpuscle
Filration only occurs in the ______ or the kidney
Bowman's Capsule
Reabsorptio occurs everywhere except in this part of the kidney
1. Reglates ECF fluid volume
2. Regulates ion cencentrations
Functions of osmoregulation: (2)
1. Produces bicarbonate to offset acidity
2. Increases H+ in tissues to offset basicity
Ways the kidneys regulate pH of plasma and tissues
Filtration
Thisis the first step of urine formation
Filtrate
Reabsorpton and secretion modify the _____
Afferent arterioles; capillary nets
20% of blood in the _______ is filtered into nephrons, most enters ___________
Hydrostatic
Filtratin pressure is ____ pressure, blood pressure
Drink lots of water to increase blood pressure
In a healthy person, what might that person do to increase glomerular filtration rate?
Autoregulation
This keep glomerular filtration rate constant ver a WIDE range of blood pressures
Myogenic response; vasoconstriction
This of smooth uscle, when it is stretched, it responds by contracting via ______
Tubuloglomerular feedback
This form of autoreglation is between he juxaglomerular apparatus and the afferent arteriole
Paacrine
High filtrate volme causes juxtaglomerular appaatus to release this: a local molecular signal to the afferent arteriole
Vasoconstriction
What does paracrine stimuate?
blood pressure
Maintaining _________ overrides maintaining floerular filtration
Nerves
_____ activated during stress or in responseto low blood pressure, dehydration, hemorrhage, ause juxtaglomerular apparatus to release renin
Renin; aldosterone
This leads to the release of a hormone, ______
Aldosterone
This causes vasoconstriction in afferent arterioles
Vasodilation
What is the autoregulatory renal response to a lower blood pressure?
Hyperglycemia
Another name for high blood glucos
Proximal
Most reabsorption occurs in the _____ tubule
Loop of Henle
This reclaims water, then salt
hyposmotic
Filtrate entering the Loop of Henle is isoosmotic to normal tissues. Osmosis and NaCl reabsorption results in _____ filtrate entering the Distal Tubule
Aquaporins
These water channels affect the rate o osmosis at the Collecting Duct
reabsorption
What is the functionof active transport in the nephron?
Lose waste but save water
What is the function of the changing osmolarity of the filtrate, what is the goal of nephron function?
xenobiotics
Organic anion transporters add _____ to te filtrate
Potassium
______ secretion in the Distal Tubule varies according to leves of the hormone aldosterone