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The cells of the kidney that remove waste, of the luns that exchange oxygen, and the digestive cells for nutrients are called:
These provide structure and flexibility and are made in the liver so we don't need to eat them
Slightly soluble; polar; nonpolar
How soluble in water are phospholipids (due to glycerol-phosphate end being ____ and the fatty acids being ______
carbohydrates, phospholipids, proteins
What biomolecules are likely to be soluble in polar solvents such as water? (3)
Lipids, fatty acids
Which biomolecules are likely to be soluble in nonpolar solvents such as oil? (2)
Meat tissue because cholesterol is important in cell membrane structure, but the fatty rind can become cholesterol
Which has more cholesterol, the muscle "meat" tissue of a pork chop, or the fatty rind and why?
These are mostly lipid and protein with a small amount of carbohydrate (Unsaturated fatty acids for flexibility)
Carbs on membranes usually serve as: (important component of glycoproteins and glycolipids
_____ and _____ substances can diffuse through the bilayer between phospholipids using simple diffusion
______________ is when a selectively permeable membraneallows substances to pass straight through the membrane
_______ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They are selectively permeable to size, charge, and shape
________ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They bind to the molecule causing a conformational change an release the molecule on the other side
These are another form of proteins that are required for facilitated diffusion: This is when one molecule often moves down the concentration gradint and another against it: Like carpooling
One molecule of glucose moved down the concentration gradient that is mountained by conversin of gucose
Symport where sodium (Na+) moves into cell by cncentration gradien and glucose moves into cell against concentration gradient
1. Temperature gradient
2. Conentration gradient
3. Carrier saturation
4. Antagonists block binding sites
5. Agonists bind elsewhere to increase transporter reactions
5 things that Affect Rate of Facilitated Diffusion
Higher/Lower temperatures and lower/greater concentration differences lead to faster diffusion
This uses membrane proteins which temporarily bin the substance being transported: Binding leads to a confrmational change, the substance is released to the other side of the membrane: Follows the concentration gradient
Primary Active Transport
this uses energy in ATP to inuce a conformational change in a transporter protein: moves substances AGAINST their concentration gradients
1. Sensory Information
2. Heat gain/loss
3. Barrier to prevent water loss and bacterial invasion
Three Functions of the skin
The ______ or dermal laer is a connective tissue holding blood vessels, nerve endings, muscles, and exocrine glands
1. Burned off epidermis: decreased keratin
2. Dermis burned
3. Burns epi and dermal layer and more
Why might burn victims develop dehydration
2. Regulates pH
3. Works with cardiovasculat system to regulate blood pressure
4. Hormone Production
5. Removal of metabolic waste
6. Removal of xenobiotics, drugs
Functions of the kidneys
This toxic waste is removed by the renal system: Protion catabolism leaves ammonia, enzyms of the Urea Cycle in the liver converts N wste into urea, and uea from the liver enters blood, is transported to the kidney, which excretes it in urine
The kidneys remove this chemical prodces from hemoglobin breakdown: It is an oxygen carrier and is yellow
Ureter; bladder; urethra
Urin enters the ______ and is stored in the ______. Urine eaves the bladder through the ______.
1. Produces bicarbonate to offset acidity
2. Increases H+ in tissues to offset basicity
Ways the kidneys regulate pH of plasma and tissues
Afferent arterioles; capillary nets
20% of blood in the _______ is filtered into nephrons, most enters ___________
Drink lots of water to increase blood pressure
In a healthy person, what might that person do to increase glomerular filtration rate?
Myogenic response; vasoconstriction
This of smooth uscle, when it is stretched, it responds by contracting via ______
This form of autoreglation is between he juxaglomerular apparatus and the afferent arteriole
High filtrate volme causes juxtaglomerular appaatus to release this: a local molecular signal to the afferent arteriole
_____ activated during stress or in responseto low blood pressure, dehydration, hemorrhage, ause juxtaglomerular apparatus to release renin
Filtrate entering the Loop of Henle is isoosmotic to normal tissues. Osmosis and NaCl reabsorption results in _____ filtrate entering the Distal Tubule
Lose waste but save water
What is the function of the changing osmolarity of the filtrate, what is the goal of nephron function?
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