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GACS lclab Honors Biology - Chapter 2 - Principles of Ecology - Section 2.1 - Organisms and their Relationships

GACS lclab Honors Biology - Chapter 2 - Section 2.1 - Organisms and their Relationships
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ecology
the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms ahve with their environment are studied.
ecologists
scientists who study ecology
longitudinal analysis
some observations and analyses must be made over long periods of time n a process called
model
allows a scientist to represent or simulate a process or system
models
allows ecologists to control the number of variables present and to slowly introduce new variable in order to fully understand the effect of each variable
Yellowstone Park
first national park in the US
Indigenous Environmental Network (IEN)
directed by Tom Goldtrooth, formed by native Americans to protect their tribal lands and communities from environmental damage
Montreal Protocal
An agreement between the US and other countries to phase out the use of chemical compounds that destroy atmospheric ozone
biosphere
the portion of Earth that supports life; includes several kilometers below the Earth's surface and several kilometers below the Earth's surface into deep ocean vents.
chlorophyll
greeen pigment found in green plants and algea
biotic
living factors in an organism's environment
biotic factors in a habitat for salmon
biotic factors include all organisms that live in the water, such as other fish, algae, frogs, and microscpic organisms
abiotic
nonliving factors in an organism's environment
abiotic factors
temperature, air or water currents, sunlight, soil type, rainfall or available nutrients
levels or oganization
organism, population, biological community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
organism
lowest level of an organization; example a single fish
population
individual organisms or a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time make up a ...
biological community
na group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time
ecosystem
a biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it
biome
a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities
biosphere
the highest level of organization which is the layer of Earth that supports life
habitat
an area where an organism lives; might be a single tree or or a grove of trees
niche
the role or position that an organism has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food, shelter and reproduction
competition
occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time
predation
the act of one organism consuming another organism for food
predator
organism that pursues another organism
prey
organism that is pursued by another organism
beneficial insects
used by organic gardeners for insect control instead of insecticides
Venus flytrap
a plant that is a predator - has modified leaves that form small traps for insects and other small animals
symbiosis
the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together
mutualism
the close relationship that exists between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other
commensalism
a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed
mutualism relationship
algae and fungi where algae provides food for fungi and fungi provide a habitat for the algae
kinds of symbiosis
mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
commensualism relationship
clownfish receives food from and protection while sea anemones are not harmed (and do not benefit from the relationship)
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another organism
parasites
can be external like ticks/fleas or internal like bacteria or roundworms
brood parasitism
rely on other bird species to build their nests and incubate their eggs