Unit 6 a.k.a. even more success
Terms in this set (48)
A political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
demographic transitional model stage, birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
predominate in the modernized nations of Western Europe, America, Japan (and to a lesser extent where their cultures have globalized) where productivity through machines, and energy sources from fossil fuels and atomic power phenomenally expand economic productivity.
Urbanized zone that spreads from India and Far East (China and Japan) across Islamic Empires, and into Europe; followed mostly along the silk and spice trade routes.
European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense (walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into Europe by the 1300s).
Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes & centers of power starting in the 1500s (from interior to coastal ports); central square became focus ("downtown"), these cities became nodes of a network of trade; brought huge riches to Europe (e.g. Lisbon, Amsterdam, London, ...)
grew out of the Industrial Revolution and the "Little Ice Age"; associated w/ mushrooming population, factories, tenement buildings, railroads, ...; poor living & health conditions; cities improved w/ government intervention, city planning, and zoning, ...
(modern architecture) little attention is spent on building aesthetics or ornate designs; improved transportation & road systems has allowed greater complexity, multiple CBDs, and dispersal into the suburbs; the hallmark of American life.
Architecture & design developed for look & commerce
Occur predominantly in MDCs; large coalescing supercities that were originally separate but have expanded and joined together
occur predominantly in LDCs; high population growth and migration cause these cities to attract massive amounts of population since WWII; tend to be plagued by chaotic and unplanned sprawling growth, pollution, and widespread poverty.
Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants.
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
because of their geographic location, they act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas (e.g., NYC, San Francisco, ...).
-CBD (central business district): location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Multiple Nuclei Model, Sector Model, Concentric Zone Model
Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
A country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country.
The rule proposed by Zipf that states that if all cities in a country are placed in order from the largest to the smallest, the second largest city would have about 1/2 the population of the largest city, the third largest city would have about 1/3 the population of the largest city, the fourth largest city about 1/4 the population of the largest city, etc.
some cities are characterized by one specific activity (e.g., Orlando - tourism, Las Vegas - gambling, ...); cities tend to lose their functional specialization as they grow. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehicles in Detroit), or are centers of government and education, notably state capitals that also have a major university (Albany, Lansing, Madison, or Raleigh-Durham).
suburbanization began largely in the US after WWII (US is the only country in the world in which the majority of the population resides in the suburbs), however, more people have started the process of centralization since the 1990s (moving back into the central cities)
Modern City Models
most residences tend to decrease in quality and value as the distance from the CBD increases
owe much of their structure to colonialism, industrialization, and massive population growth; sector development radiates out from the CBD (which often contain a central plaza), where most industrial and financial activity occurs; also contain barrios (ethnic neighborhoods) which can often be associated with poorer sectors of the city.
Consists of sectors and zones radiating from the port zone
(type of city in a specific location) consist of sectors and zones, but possess a great deal of centrality around the CBD (may contain multiple CBDs); typically have strong ethnic neighborhoods and squatter settlements on the outskirts.
tend to be more centralized and less suburbanized than US cities
older ones were mostly developed during the Medieval period; display less sprawl than US cities, in part since gasoline my cost up to 3-4 times more than in the US; also, some cities have greenbelts (undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law) which confine urban sprawl.
Eastern European City
typically less affluent than Western European cities due to the communist urban planning by the USSR during the Cold War; most residential spaces were organized into microdistricts (designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space).
found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods.
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Public Housing Project
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rests are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Zone in Transition
An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
Legal restrictions on land use that determines what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the United States, areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.
Small county subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
The process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the automobile provides the primary source of transportation.
urban design originating in the US during the 1980s to work against sprawl; characterized by organized urban planning, suburban infill (filling in unused space), and are designed to be walkable (Celebration, Florida)
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
evolve from a consumers formal and informal relationships with other people, also exert a significant impact on consumer behavior. involve personal influence, reference groups, family influence, culture and subculture
Concerns of Urbanization
Sprawl, Loss of soil, Land use, Pollution, Waste, Consumption habits
a socioreligious movement, usually organized by a prophetic leader, that seeks to construct a more satisfying situation by reviving all or parts of a religion that has been threatened by outside forces or by adopting new practices and beliefs
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
houses that new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down to build a new one
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