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modifications for successful life on land

1. reduction of gametophyte size
2. the almighty seed
3. pollen

importance of pollen

no longer needed water for fertilization

importance of seeds

-zygotes developed into sporophyte embryos with packaged food supply in a protective coating.
-replaces spores as means of dispersal

points of gametophytes being reduced

seed plants are even more reduced
reverses trend gametophyte/sporophyte relationship.
diploid generation can withstand solar radiation with extra chromosomes


coated resilient polymer

where are pollen grains produced?

developed from microspores from microsporangia.

What is the development of seed associated with?


______ became the vehicle for sperm cells in plants



megasporangium of seed plants, fleshy structure. Unlike a chamber of spores like ancestors.


tissues surrounds the megasporangium, part of protective coating.


resulting structure consisting of megaspore, megasporagnium, and integuments

female gametophyte develops within the wall of the ______ and is nourished by the _________

megaspore, nucellus

egg from gametophyte is fertilized, the zygote becomes a _____________

sporophyte embryo

sporophyte containing ovule develops into a ______


some ___________ have flagellated sperms, e.g. (________)

gymnosperms, cycads

Gymnosperms are _______ than Angiosperms


gymnosperms lack __________

enclosed chamber (ovary) in which seed develop

Florida native cycad

Florida coontie, Zamila Pumila

Groups of Gymnosperms

cycads, ginkgo, gnetophytes, conifers

largest group of gymnosperms


needle shape conifer leaves are adapted for __________

dry conditions

characteristics adapted for dry conditions

thick cuticle on leafs
stomata are in pits, less water loss
needles are megaphylls, i.e. leaves

"mormon tea"

from ephedra, gnentophyte

Male gametophyte of pine is in the _____________

pollen grain, there is no antheridium

Female gametophyte of pine is in the ___________

ovule, consists of nutritive tissue and archengonium.

Conifers are _________, male and female gametophyte develop from different types of spores produced by different _________.

heterosporus, cones

pollen cones have ___________, under goes meiosis producing __________ microspores.

microsporangia, haploid.

microspores developed into pollen grains, i.e.

the male gametophyte

megaspores becomes female gametophyte, consists of _________ and ________

egg and endosperm mother cell

Ovulate has Megasporangia, each megasporangium (nucellus) is enclosed in a protective integuments wiht a single opening called __________


male cones and female cones, respectively

pollen cone and ovulate cone

It takes ____ years to complete pine life cycle


pollen falls onto the ovulate and is drawn into the ovule through the ___________


Pollen grain germinates in the ovule, forming ________, that begins to digest its way through the nucellus.

pollen tube

male gametophytes in seed plants are ________


endosperm is haploid or diploid?

haploid, only the egg is fertilized to be diploid.

megaspore mother cell produces 4 megaspore, only which one will survive, giving rise to

the female gametophyte

fertilization occurs more than one year after pollination,

two sperm cells developed from pollen tube and pollen tube grown through nucellus to reach female gametophyte

more than one egg can be fertilized, but...

only one zygote developes into embryo

new pine embryo, _____________

new sporophyte

new sporophyte, gets embedded in the female gametophyte, nourishes until capable of photosythesis, it is now a ________

seed; with (2n) embryo, food source (n) endosperm), seed coat 2n integuments of parent's.

scales of the cone releases winged seeds carried by the wind, this replaces the _________ as a means of dispersal.


evolutionary significance of petal, nectar and fragrance?

attrack pollenators

reproductive structure of angiosperm, compressed shoot with four whorls of modified leaves



enclose the bud


you know what petals are idiot


anther and filament, produces pollen

pistil (carpel)

evolved from seed beareing leaf, that became rolled into a tube. Made up of stigma, ovule, style.


protect ovules, which later become seeds. No archegonium in ovule.

angiosperms disperse seeds through

fruits, ripoened ovary that protect dormant seeds and disperses

aggregate fruits

several ovaries that are part of the same flower,eg raspberries

multiple fruit

one that develope from several separate flowers, eg pineapple

modifications of fruits that aid in dispersal

shapes like kites for wind dispersal.
burr-like fruit cling to animal fur
edible fruit passes through digestive tract, dispersing miles away

The female gametophyte of angiosperms do not produce __________, located within an

archegonium, ovule,

angiosperm gametophyte has embryo sac with

eight haploid nuclei, but seven cells. One cell is (n+n) not 2n, this is the future endosperm.

double fertilization happens when

two sperm fertilize the (n+n) to form make (3n)endosperm and an egg, to make an embryo (2n)

angiosperm embryo develop with rudimentary roots and one or two seed leaves called,

cotyledons, ex. dicotyledons and monocotyledons.

seed coat is derived from

integuments, outer layers of ovules.

ovule becomes seeds, ovaries becomes

fruits,ovules are inside ovaries.

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