28 terms

Personal Fitness Ch. 4: Body Composition

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body composition
the fat and non-fat components of the human body
important in assessing recommended body weight
percent body fat
proportional amount of fat in the body based on the person's total weight; includes both essential fat and storage fat
fat mass
lean body mass
body weight without body fat
recommended body weight
body weight at which there seems to be no harm to human health
healthy weight
overweight
an excess amount of weight against a given standard, such as height or recommended percent body fat
obesity
an excessive accumulation of body fat, usually at least 30% above recommended body weight
essential fat
minimal amount of body fat needed for normal physiological functions
constitutes about 3% of total weight in men and 12% in women
storage fat
body fat in excess of essential fat stored in adipose tissue
functions of storage fat
1. insulation
2. energy substrate for metabolism
3. padding against physical trauma
dual energy xray absoptiometry
method to assess body composition that uses very low-dose beams of x-ray energy to meaure total body fat mass, fat distribution pattern, and bone density
quick
SEE +- 1.8%
expensive and not readily available
hydrostatic weighing
underwater technique to assess body composition; considered the most accurate of the body composition assessment techniques
historically most common
+-0.5%
difficult for aquaphobic people
hydrostatic weighing process
1. force out all of the air in the lungs
2. lean forward and completely submerge underwater for about 5 to 10 seconds
3. remain as calm as possible
4. repeat 8-10 times
aquaphobic
having a fear of water
air displacement
technique to assess body composition by calculating the body volume from the air replaced by an individual sitting inside a small chamber
Bod Pod
quick
SEE +-2.2%
consistently overestimates
bod pod
commercial name of the equipment used to assess body composition through the air displacement technique
skinfold thickness
technique to assess body composition by measuring a double thickness of skin at specific body sites
SEE +- 3.5%
should be done by same person every time and at the same time of day preferable in the morning
subcutaneous fat
deposits of fat directly under the skin
girth measurements
technique to assess body composition by measuring circumferences at specific body sites
SEE +-4%
only requires measuring tape
may not be valid for athletes
bioelectrical impedence
technique to assess body composition by running a weak electrical current through the body
fat tissue is a less efficient conductor of electrical current than is lean tissue
metrics to determine recommended body weight
BMI, Waist circumference, waist to height ratio
body mass index (BMI)
technique to determine thinness and excessive fatness that incorporates height and weight to estimate critical fat values at which the risk for disease increases
-calculated by either
1. dividing the weight in kg by height in meters
2. multiplying body weight in pounds by 705 and dividing this figure by the square of the height in inches
-fails to differentiate between fat and lean body mass
overweight classificiation
if BMI is between 25 and 30
underweight
extremely low body weigh
BMI below 18.5
android obesity
obesity pattern seen in individuals who tend to store fat in the trunk or ab area
Apple shaped
gynoid obesity
obesity pattern seen in people who store fat around the hips and thighs
pear shaped
waist circumference
waist girth measurement to assess potential risk for disease based on intra-abdominal fat
better predictor of BMI for risk of disease
waist to height ratio
better predictor than BMI or WC
dividing the waist circumference by height in inches
keep wait circumference to less than half your height
guildelines for accurate waist measurement
stand in front of a mirror
use nonelastic measuring tape and hold it up to skin but do not compress the waist
consistently measure the same site
relax, exhale then take the reading
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