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Unbiased value-free knowledge- The ability to explore/ research the social world without being bias; to be as scientific as possible; an approach favoured by positivists.


Where the data provides a true and accurate description or measurement of the social reality of those being researched.


What is seen as morally right and wrong when conducting research, such as confidentiality, anonymity, privacy and the right to withdraw.


The ability to repeat research and gainthe same or similar results e.g. consistent results.


The extent to which the sample selected is a fair reflection of the target population.


The ability to make claims about the target population from the research findings.


Translating concepts into a measureable form by using indecators.


Relation of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people; a relaxed and informal relationship between people you're studying.


The ability to gain empathy to see the perspective from the people you're studying( to get into their skin).

Content analysis

The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale e.g. sociologist.

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