1. Self Awareness - Having a deep understanding of one's emotions, as well as one's strengths and limitations and ones' values and motives. (Competencies: emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assesment, & self-confidence)
2. Self Management - Focused drive all leaders need to achieve their goals. (Competencies: emotional self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, optimism, achievement orientation, & initiative)
3. Social Awareness - Being attuned to how others feel in the moment. (Competencies: empathy, organizational awareness, & service orientation)
4. Relationship Management - Handling relationships with a purpose: to move people in the right direction. (Competencies: developing others, inspirational leadership, influence, communication, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, & teamwork & collaboration.)
The horizontal axis represents the leader's concern for results, while the vertical axis represents the leader's concern for people.
Authority-Compliance (9,1) - Heavy emphasis on task & job requirements, and less emphasis on people, except to the extent that they are tools for getting the job done. (controlling, demanding, hard driving, & overpowering)
Country-Club Management (1,9) - Low concern for task accomplishment and high concern for interpersonal relationships. (agreeable, eager to help, comforting, & uncontroversial)
Impoverished Management (1,1) - Leader is unconcerned with the task and interpersonal relationships. They go through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved and withdrawn. (indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, & apathetic)
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) - These leaders are compromisers, they have concern for both the task and the people performing the task. They try and find a balance between taking people into account and still emphasizing the work requirements. (expedient, avoids conflict, & soft-pedals disagreement)
Team Management (9,9) - This style puts a strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships. It promotes a high degree of participation and teamwork (stimulates participation, acts determined, gets issues out into the open, makes priorities clear, follows through, behaves open-mindedly, & enjoys working)
Within an organizational work unit, followers become a part of the in-group or the out-group based on how well they work with the leader and how well the leader works with them. In addition, membership in one group or the other is based on how followers involve themselves in expanding their role responsibilities with the leader. Followers who are interested in negotiating with the leader what they are willing to do for the group can become a part of the in-group. These negotiations involve exchanges in which followers do certain activities that go beyond their formal job descriptions, and the leader, in turn, does more for these followers. If followers aren't interested in taking on new and different job responsibilities, they become part of the out-group.
in-group (extra-roles) - Based on expanded and negotiated role responsibilities. These followers receive more information, influence, confidence, and concern from their leaders than do out-group followers. There are more dependable, more highly involved, and more communicative than out-group followers. Do extra things for the leader and the leader does the same for them.
out-group (defined roles) - Based on the formal employment contract. Followers in the out-group are less compatible with the leader and usually just come to work, do their job, and go home.