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AGED-260 Exam 2 Review

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What is the definition of emotional intelligence?
It is the ability to perceive and express emotions, to use emotions, to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions, and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships with others.
What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and general intelligence?
Intelligence is concerned with our ability to learn information and apply it to life tasks, while emotional intelligence is concerned with our ability to understand emotions and apply this understanding to life's tasks.
What does Goleman say about the importance of emotional intelligence to effective leadership and corporate climate?
He says that people who are more sensitive to their emotions and the impact of their emotions on others will be leaders who are more effective.
List and describe the four categories (clusters or areas) of emotional intelligence. How are they different from each other?
1. Self Awareness - Having a deep understanding of one's emotions, as well as one's strengths and limitations and ones' values and motives. (Competencies: emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assesment, & self-confidence)

2. Self Management - Focused drive all leaders need to achieve their goals. (Competencies: emotional self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, optimism, achievement orientation, & initiative)

3. Social Awareness - Being attuned to how others feel in the moment. (Competencies: empathy, organizational awareness, & service orientation)

4. Relationship Management - Handling relationships with a purpose: to move people in the right direction. (Competencies: developing others, inspirational leadership, influence, communication, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, & teamwork & collaboration.)
How does emotional intelligence fit in with the definition of leadership from Northouse?
People who are more sensitive to their emotions and the impact of their emotions on others will be leaders who are more effective.
What is the relationship of emotions, thoughts and behaviors to performance?
Begins with Emotions--> Thoughts--> Behaviors--> Performance
What are the benefits of having a leader with high emotional intelligence?
They are more sensitive to their emotions and their impact on others and they are also better at managing relationships & motivating.
What assessment is used to determine your emotional intelligence?
The ECI is used for determining EI. As a college student I would complete the ECI-U to determine my EI. It measures the 21 competencies associated with the 4 quadrants of EI. It is behaviorally focused, meaning it doesn't measure attributes.
What do the scores on this assessment mean?
The assessment gives you scores in each of the 4 competency clusters: self awareness, self management, social competence, & relationship management. The scores provide your strengths and weaknesses in these competencies and the assessment provides recommendations of how you can improve each. Ratings 1-5 are based on frequency behaviors that are demonstrated.
If you choose to work on your emotional intelligence, which cluster should you focus on for the best payoff or the greatest gain in developing EI?
Self Awareness - Because developing underlying "foundation" competencies, those found in the self awareness cluster, though harder to develop, promise greater gain.
Where do you see emotional intelligence concepts in other leadership theories?
Everywhere
What is the focus/definition of the Behavioral/style approach?
It focuses on what leaders do and how they act. In shifting the study of leadership to leader behaviors, the behavioral approach expanded the research of leadership to include the actions of leaders toward followers.
What are the two main categories of behaviors in the approach?
Task Behaviors - facilitate goal accomplishment: they help group members to achieve their goals.

Relationship Behaviors - help followers feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the situation in which they find themselves.
What leadership instrument came out of the Ohio State studies and was later modified by Stogdill?
The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) which was later modified by Stogdill into the LBDQ-XII.
What was the focus of the Michigan studies? (i.e., the focus was a slightly different focus from Ohio State and Blake & Mouton's)
The focus was leadership behaviors, with special attention to the impact of leaders' behaviors on the performance of small groups. It identified 2 types of leadership behaviors: employee orientation and product orientation.
Name and describe the five major leader behaviors on Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid. What do the grid lines mean? Be sure to understand where various levels of concern for production (results) and concern for people would plot on the grid.
The horizontal axis represents the leader's concern for results, while the vertical axis represents the leader's concern for people.

Authority-Compliance (9,1) - Heavy emphasis on task & job requirements, and less emphasis on people, except to the extent that they are tools for getting the job done. (controlling, demanding, hard driving, & overpowering)

Country-Club Management (1,9) - Low concern for task accomplishment and high concern for interpersonal relationships. (agreeable, eager to help, comforting, & uncontroversial)

Impoverished Management (1,1) - Leader is unconcerned with the task and interpersonal relationships. They go through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved and withdrawn. (indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, & apathetic)

Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) - These leaders are compromisers, they have concern for both the task and the people performing the task. They try and find a balance between taking people into account and still emphasizing the work requirements. (expedient, avoids conflict, & soft-pedals disagreement)

Team Management (9,9) - This style puts a strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships. It promotes a high degree of participation and teamwork (stimulates participation, acts determined, gets issues out into the open, makes priorities clear, follows through, behaves open-mindedly, & enjoys working)
What does the Leadership Behavior (Style) Questionnaire tell you about your leadership style?
It tells you if you are more likely to lead with an emphasis on task behaviors or relationship behaviors.
How does the Behavioral/style approach work?
It works by not telling leaders how to behave, but by describing the major components of their behavior.
What are the strengths of the Behavioral/style approach?
1) Marked a major shift in the general focus of leadership research. Leadership is no longer looked at as a trait.

2) A wide range of studies on leadership behavior validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach.

3) Researchers have ascertained that a leader's style consists of task behaviors and relationship behaviors.

4) It's heuristic, it provides us with a broad conceptual map to use in our attempt to understand the complexities of leadership.
What are the criticisms of the Behavioral/style approach?
1) The research on the behavioral approach hasn't adequately shown how leaders' behaviors are associated with performance outcomes.

2) This approach has failed to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation.

3) It implies that the most effective leadership style is the high-high style.
How is the Behavioral/Style approach applicable to real world settings?
By assessing their own behaviors, managers can determine how they're coming across to others and how they could change their behaviors to be more effective. The behavioral approach applies to nearly everything a leader does.
How is the Behavioral/style approach similar to and different from other leadership theories in this course?
This style emphasizes the behavior of the leader. This distinguishes it from the trait approach, which emphasizes the personality characteristics of the leader, and the skills approach, which emphasizes the leader's capabilities.
What is the focus/definition of the Situational Approach?
The situational approach focuses on leadership in situations. Different situations demand different types of leadership. To be an effective leader they have to adapt their style to the demands of different situations.
What are the two main categories of behaviors in the approach?
Directive Behavior - help group members accomplish goals by giving directions, establishing goals and methods of evaluation, setting timelines, defining roles, and showing how the goals are to be achieved. (One-way communication)

Supportive Behavior - help group members feel comfortable about themselves, their coworkers, and the situation. (two-way communication)
Name and describe the four leadership styles identified in the Situational Leadership II Model (SL II).
Directing (High directive & low supportive) - The leader focuses communication on goal achievement, and spends less time using supportive behaviors.

Coaching (High directive & high supportive) - The leader focuses communication on both achieving goals and meeting followers' socioemotional needs.

Supporting (High supportive & low directive) - The leader doesn't focus exclusively on goals but uses supportive behaviors that bring out followers' skills around the goal to be accomplished.

Delegating (Low supportive & low directive) - The leader offers less goal input and social support, facilitating followers' confidence and motivation in reference to the goal.
List and describe the developmental levels of the followers. How is the developmental level of followers determined?
D1 (Low competence & high commitment) - Followers are new to a goal and don't know exactly how to do it, but they're excited about the challenge of it.

D2 (Some competence & low commitment) - Followers have started to learn a job, but they have also lost some of their initial motivation about the job.

D3 (Moderate competence & variable commitment) - Followers have essentially developed the skills for the job, but they're uncertain as to whether they can accomplish the goal by themselves.

D4 (High competence & high commitment) - Followers have the skills to do the job and the motivation to get it done.
What does the Situational Leadership Questionnaire tell you about your leadership?
It provides information about the leader's diagnostic ability, flexibility, and effectiveness.
How does the situational approach work? And what Situational Leadership styles should be used in relation to the developmental levels of the followers? Why?
Followers move forward and backward along the developmental continuum. For leaders to be effective, it's essential that they determine where followers are on the developmental continuum and adapt their leadership styles.
D1-S1
D2-S2
D3-S3
D4-S4
What are the strengths of Situational Approach?
1) It is recognized by many as a standard for training leaders.
2) It is practical, meaning it is easily understood and easily applied.
3) It sets a clear set of prescriptions for how leaders should act if they want to enhance their leadership effectiveness.
4) It recognizes and stresses that there's not one best style of leadership; instead, leaders need to be flexible and adapt their style to the requirements of the situation.
What are the criticisms of Situational Approach?
1) Only a few research studies have been conducted to justify the assumptions and propositions set forth by the approach.
2) Ambiguous conceptualization in the model of followers' developmental levels.
3) Concern with how commitment is conceptualized in the model.
4) No evidence to support the basic prescriptions suggested in the situational approach.
5) Fails to account for how certain demographic characteristics influence the leader-follower prescriptions of the model.
6) The questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership.
What are some applications of the Situational leadership approach?
It is applicable in almost any type of organization, at any level, for nearly all types of goals. (Ex: used in consulting and managing)
How is Situational Leadership similar or different than other theories/approaches in this course?
Similarities:
- Like EI it can be learned and developed over time

Differences:
- Whereas many theories of leadership are descriptive in nature, the situational approach is prescriptive (tells you what you should and should not do in various contexts).
- Unlike the trait and contingency approaches, which advocate a fixed style for leaders, the situational approach demands that leaders demonstrate a high degree of flexibility.
Define the LMX theory. What is the main focus of the LMX theory?
LMX theory takes still another approach and conceptualizes leadership as a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. LMX theory makes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers the focal point of the process.
Describe the dyadic relationship outlined in this theory.
It is between the leader and their followers. The leader forms an individualized working relationship with each of their followers. The exchanges (both content & process) between the leader and follower define their dyadic relationship. The leader forms special relationships with EACH of their followers. Each of these relationships is special and has its own unique characteristics.
Describe in-group and out-group. What are the leader and followers roles related to these two groupings?
Within an organizational work unit, followers become a part of the in-group or the out-group based on how well they work with the leader and how well the leader works with them. In addition, membership in one group or the other is based on how followers involve themselves in expanding their role responsibilities with the leader. Followers who are interested in negotiating with the leader what they are willing to do for the group can become a part of the in-group. These negotiations involve exchanges in which followers do certain activities that go beyond their formal job descriptions, and the leader, in turn, does more for these followers. If followers aren't interested in taking on new and different job responsibilities, they become part of the out-group.

in-group (extra-roles) - Based on expanded and negotiated role responsibilities. These followers receive more information, influence, confidence, and concern from their leaders than do out-group followers. There are more dependable, more highly involved, and more communicative than out-group followers. Do extra things for the leader and the leader does the same for them.

out-group (defined roles) - Based on the formal employment contract. Followers in the out-group are less compatible with the leader and usually just come to work, do their job, and go home.
How does the quality of the leader-member exchanges affect employee and organizational outcomes?
Researchers found that high-quality leader-member exchanges produced less employee turnover, more positive performance evaluations, higher frequency of promotions, greater organizational commitment, more desirable work assignments, better job attitudes, more attention and support from the leader, greater participation, and faster career progress over 25 years. In other words, followers who had higher-quality relationships with their leaders were more likely to engage in "positive payback" behaviors that benefited the leader and the organization.
What does "leadership making" mean?
It is a prescriptive approach to leadership emphasizing that leaders should develop high-quality exchanges with all of their followers rather than just a few. It attempts to make every follower feel as if they are part of the in-group and, by doing so, avoids the inequities and negative implications of being in an out-group. In addition, leadership making suggests that leaders can create networks of partnerships throughout the organization, which will benefit the organization's goals and the leader's own career progress.
Describe the three phases of leadership making. Pay close attention to Table 7.1 (8.1 in the 6th edition) as you describe these phases. How are the roles, influences, exchanges and interests different in each phase?
Graen and Uhl-Bien (1991) suggested that leadership making develops progressively over time in 3 phases: (1) the stranger phase, (2) the acquaintance stage, and (3) the partnership phase.

Stranger: Phase 1
Roles - Scripted
Influences - One way
Exchanges - Low quality
Interests - Self

Acquaintance: Phase 2
Roles - Tested
Influences - Mixed
Exchanges - Medium quality
Interests - Self and other

Partnership: Phase 3
Roles - Negotiated
Influences - Reciprocal
Exchanges - High quality
Interests - Group
What assessment corresponds to the LMX theory? What do these scores mean?
The LMX 7 questionnaire corresponds to the LMX theory. It asks you to describe the relationship with either your leader or one of your followers. The score you obtain on the questionnaire reflects the quality of your leader-member relationships, and indicates the degree to which your relationships are characteristic of partnerships, as described in the LMX model.
What are the strengths of LMX theory?
1) It is a strong descriptive theory.
2) It's unique because it's the only leadership approach that makes the concept of the dyadic relationship the centerpiece of the leadership process.
3) It's noteworthy because it directs our attention to the importance of communication in leadership.
4) LMX theory warns leaders to avoid letting their conscious or unconscious biases (e.g., race, gender, ethnicity, religion, or age) influence who is invited into the in-group.
5) A large body of research substantiates how the practice of LMX theory is related to positive organizational outcomes.
What are the weaknesses of LMX theory?
1) On the surface, leader-member exchange in its initial formulation (vertical dyad linkage theory) runs counter to the basic human value of fairness. LMX theory appears to discriminate against the out-group.

2) The basic ideas of the theory aren't fully developed. For example, LMX theory doesn't fully explain how high-quality leader-member exchanges are created.

3) Researchers haven't adequately explained the contextual factors that may have an impact on LMX relationships.

4) Questions have been raised about the measurement of leader-member exchange theory. For example, no empirical studies have used dyadic measures to analyze the LMX process.
How could you apply the LMX theory approach in leadership situations?
Although LMX theory hasn't been packaged in a way to be used in standard management training and development programs, it offers many insights that leaders could use to improve their own leadership behavior. For example, LMX theory could be used to explain how CEOs develop special relationships with select individuals in upper management to develop new strategic and tactical corporate goals. On a lower level LMX theory could be used to explain how line managers in a manufacturing plant use a select few workers to accomplish the production quotas of their work unit. LMX theory can be applied in many different organizations.
How is LMX similar or different than other theories/approaches in this course?
Most of the leadership theories discussed thus far in the book have emphasized leadership from the point of view of the leader (e.g., trait approach, skills approach, & style approach) or the follower and the context (e.g., Situational Leadership & path-goal theory). LMX theory takes still another approach and conceptualizes leadership as a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. Before LMX theory, researchers treated leadership as something leaders did toward all of their followers. Other approaches emphasize the characteristics of leaders, followers, contexts, or a combination of these, but none of them addresses the specific relationship between the leader and EACH of their followers.
What do LaFasto & Larson say is the purpose of the team leader?
They said "the purpose of the team leader is to add value to your team's effort.
What type of research did LaFasto and Larson complete to determine team leadership competencies? What were the two questions they asked? What did the leaders say about their team leadership ability when asked these same questions?
They surveyed 6,000 team members and ~600 leaders; asking two open ended questions:

1) What are the strengths of the team's leadership?
2)What does the team leader do that keeps the team from functioning more effectively?

The 600 leaders rated themselves higher than their followers by an average margin of 50%!
What are the six behavioral dimensions of effective team leaders (the strengths)? How are these similar to concepts we have discussed in other leadership theories?
1) Focus on the goal
2) Ensure a collaborative effort
3) Build confidence
4) Demonstrate sufficient technical know-how
5) Set priorities
6) Manage performance

This model is consistent with contemporary leadership literature (and our course) that an increasing emphasis is on the relationship between leaders and followers.
What are the stages of group development, according to Tuckman and Jensen? What occurs during these stages of group development? (define/describe the stages). How does studying these stages help us become better leaders and followers?
Forming - Orientation: members getting to know one another. (ends when group members are comfortable with one another)

Storming - Conflict: disagreement about roles and procedures. (important to promote different perspectives and clarify member's positions)

Norming - Structure: establishment of rules and social relationships. (group is cohesive; norms established with trust)

Performing - Work: focus on completing the task. (most performance occurs here; not all groups reach this stage)

Adjourning - Dissolution: completion of task and end of group (may be a stressful time when ending formed relationships; should be time for learning from team experience)

Studying these stages will help us work more effectively in teams.
How do new teams increase their effectiveness?
1) Team warm-ups/ice-breakers to help members know one another
2) Spend time defining project/understanding assignment
3) Team contract to have group understanding of how to operate and norms
4) Spend time clarifying the task and creating relationships