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Demographic Variables

population size, age, racial composition, birth and death rates used to discuss populations

Fertility Rate

number of births that occur in a population

Crude Birth Rate

number of births for every 1,000 pppeole each year

Mortality Rate

number of deaths that occur in a population

Life Expectancy

average number of years a person is expected to live

Life Span

maximum length of time a person can possibly live

Baby Boomers

children born after WWII through the early 1960s.


movement of people into a nation-state


movement of people out of a nation-state

Malthusian Theorem

a population projection that suggests the population will exceed the available food supply because populations grow at geometric rates, while food supplies grow at arithmetic rates

Environmental Justice

the impact of environmental factors on social classes

Neo-Classical Migration Theory or Push-Pull

suggests that migration depends on the supply and demand for labor, both in the sending area and the receiving one

What caused Japan's total fertility rate to decrease?

defeat in WWII

In general, birth rates are_________ connected to a woman's income and level of education.



the diversion of people based on certain physical characteristics


the classification of people who share a common culture, linguistic, or ancestral heritage

Majority Group

the group that has the largest population in society and holds significant power and privilege

Dominant Group

the group that has the greatest power, but not necessarily the greatest numbers


the attempt to destroy or exterminate a people based on their race and/or ethnicity

Voluntary Immigration

the willing movement of people from one society to another

Involuntary Immigration

the forced movemnet of people from one society to another

Pluralistic Minorities

groups that enter into an area voluntarily but seek to maintain their own culture while also integrating into the dominant group

Assimilationist Minorities

groups that seek to shed their old ways and integrate themselves into mainstream society

Secessionist Minorities

groups that voluntarily separate themselves from the dominant group and view the dominant group with disdain, believing that it will corrupt the group's belief system

Militant Minorities

groups that seek to overthrow the existing system because they see it as unjust


refers to negative attitudes(thoughts) about an entire category of people


simplified perceptions people have of an entire group that are usually based on false assumptions


the unfair treatment(actions) of people based on a prejudice

Institutional Discrimination

maintains the advantage for the dominant group, while providing the appearance of fairness to all


making an unfair accusation against a person or group as the cause of a problem


forced separation because of factors such as race, gender, or ethnicity

Cycle of Poverty

a generational barrier that prevents poor people from breaking into the middle and upper classes

Gender Identity

our perception of ourselves as male or female


a social system in which the father serves as head of the family, and men have authority over women and children


a social system in which women are the main athority and hold power over men

Gender Roles

society's expectations of how males and females should act and think

Glass Ceiling

an invisible barrier preventing women from reaching executive-level positions in the workplace

Which amendment gave all the women in the US the right to vote?


Sick Role

the expected behaviors and responsibilities appropriate for someone who is ill


government-run social insurance program that provides health coverage for people 65 or older


a form of government health insurance designed for the poor and disabled


the study of aging and the elderly

"Young Old"

is a cohort that consists of people between the ages of 65 and 75

"Old Old"

a cohort that consists of people over the age of 75

"Sandwiched" Generation

the generation that takes care of both its children and its elderly parents


prejudice and discrimination based solely on age

Elderly account for what percent of the population?


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