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47 terms

Sociology Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Demographic Variables
population size, age, racial composition, birth and death rates used to discuss populations
Fertility Rate
number of births that occur in a population
Crude Birth Rate
number of births for every 1,000 pppeole each year
Mortality Rate
number of deaths that occur in a population
Life Expectancy
average number of years a person is expected to live
Life Span
maximum length of time a person can possibly live
Baby Boomers
children born after WWII through the early 1960s.
1946-1964
Immigration
movement of people into a nation-state
emigration
movement of people out of a nation-state
Malthusian Theorem
a population projection that suggests the population will exceed the available food supply because populations grow at geometric rates, while food supplies grow at arithmetic rates
Environmental Justice
the impact of environmental factors on social classes
Neo-Classical Migration Theory or Push-Pull
suggests that migration depends on the supply and demand for labor, both in the sending area and the receiving one
What caused Japan's total fertility rate to decrease?
defeat in WWII
In general, birth rates are_________ connected to a woman's income and level of education.
inversely
Race
the diversion of people based on certain physical characteristics
Ethnicity
the classification of people who share a common culture, linguistic, or ancestral heritage
Majority Group
the group that has the largest population in society and holds significant power and privilege
Dominant Group
the group that has the greatest power, but not necessarily the greatest numbers
Genocide
the attempt to destroy or exterminate a people based on their race and/or ethnicity
Voluntary Immigration
the willing movement of people from one society to another
Involuntary Immigration
the forced movemnet of people from one society to another
Pluralistic Minorities
groups that enter into an area voluntarily but seek to maintain their own culture while also integrating into the dominant group
Assimilationist Minorities
groups that seek to shed their old ways and integrate themselves into mainstream society
Secessionist Minorities
groups that voluntarily separate themselves from the dominant group and view the dominant group with disdain, believing that it will corrupt the group's belief system
Militant Minorities
groups that seek to overthrow the existing system because they see it as unjust
Prejudice
refers to negative attitudes(thoughts) about an entire category of people
Stereotypes
simplified perceptions people have of an entire group that are usually based on false assumptions
Discrimination
the unfair treatment(actions) of people based on a prejudice
Institutional Discrimination
maintains the advantage for the dominant group, while providing the appearance of fairness to all
Scapegoat
making an unfair accusation against a person or group as the cause of a problem
Segregation
forced separation because of factors such as race, gender, or ethnicity
Cycle of Poverty
a generational barrier that prevents poor people from breaking into the middle and upper classes
Gender Identity
our perception of ourselves as male or female
Patriarchy
a social system in which the father serves as head of the family, and men have authority over women and children
Matriarchy
a social system in which women are the main athority and hold power over men
Gender Roles
society's expectations of how males and females should act and think
Glass Ceiling
an invisible barrier preventing women from reaching executive-level positions in the workplace
Which amendment gave all the women in the US the right to vote?
19th
Sick Role
the expected behaviors and responsibilities appropriate for someone who is ill
Medicare
government-run social insurance program that provides health coverage for people 65 or older
Medicaid
a form of government health insurance designed for the poor and disabled
Gerontology
the study of aging and the elderly
"Young Old"
is a cohort that consists of people between the ages of 65 and 75
"Old Old"
a cohort that consists of people over the age of 75
"Sandwiched" Generation
the generation that takes care of both its children and its elderly parents
Ageism
prejudice and discrimination based solely on age
Elderly account for what percent of the population?
13%