Social Psych #2
Terms in this set (53)
5.1 Define self-concept. Discuss animal and human research on the development of self across species and within humans. Discuss how our self-concepts change with age.
Self Concept: the overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes.
-Great Apes: have been one of the only animals to be able to pass the red dot test preformed on them, making them aware of their "self"
-Self Concept changes with age: By asking the "who am I" question. As we mature we place less emphasis on psychical charchetristics and more on psychological states (like how we are feeling, out thoughts) and also we consider how others would judge us on what we say.
5.2 Identify and define the four components of the self that will be discussed in this chapter.
1. Self Knowledge: our beliefs about who we are and the way in which we formulate and organize information.
2. Self Control: the way in which we make plans and execute decisions.
3. Impression Management: how we present ourselves to other people
4. Self esteem: the way we feel about ourselves
5.3 Describe different conceptions of the self across cultures. Contrast the independent view of the self with the interdependent view of the self.
Western Culture tend to view the self in a way called the independent view: in this view you define yourself in terms of ones own thoughts, feelings and actions.
Asain Culture they tend to view the self in a way called the interdependent view: were they use other peoples thoughts, feelings and actions to make choices.
5.4 Discuss gender differences in the self-concept in the United States.
5.5 Discuss introspection as a source of self-knowledge and determine whether introspection is an accurate source of self-knowledge
Introspection is the process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings and motives. This helps us come to see who we are and why we do what we do.
Introspection is not an accurate source of self-knowlwdge because reasons for our feeling and behaviors can be hidden from our councils awareness.
5.6 Describe self-awareness theory. Identify the emotional and behavioral consequences of self-awareness. Discuss when self-awareness is aversive and how we attempt to stop being self-aware. Discuss the benefits of self-focus. Discuss how culture affects levels of self-awareness.
Self awareness theory: the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behaviors to their internal standards and values. (we become self-conscious in the sense that we become objective,judgmental observers of ourselves, seeing ourselves as an outside observe would)
You may think bad about yourself or drink to much or try and do drugs after becoming self aware of who you are these emotional and behavioral consequneces occur.
People attempt to stop being self aware by avoiding the self maybe drinking to much, they try to escape themselves.
Self focus can be good, like if you've just landed a job or an accomplishment you can reflect and be happy. This also helps you make better decisions you are more likely to follow your moral code if your infront of a mirror being self focused.
5.7 Distinguish between introspections about how we feel or what kind of person we are, and why we feel the way we do. Discuss the role of causal theories in telling more than we can know.
Introspection may not lead us to the true causes of our feelings and behavior but we will manage to convince ourselves that it did. Nibs & Wilson referred to this as the phenomenon of "telling more than we know" because peoples explanations of their feelings and behaviors often go beyond what they can reasonably know.
Casual Theories: are theories about the causes of ones own feelings and behaviors: often we learn such theories from our culture. (people are blue on mondays)
5.8 Identify the consequences of introspecting about reasons and the kinds of information that come to mind when people introspect about reasons. Define reasons-generated attitude change and discuss its consequences. Explain why analyzing reasons may change a person's feelings.
The consequences of introspection is resulted in a process called reasons generated attitude change. Which results from thinking about reasons for your attitudes.
a.) bring to mind reasons that don't really reflect how they feel
b.) talk themselves into believing that this is how they feel.
People can analyze feelings but its the hard to explain ones that really matter and make the real choices.
5.9 Describe the postulates of Daryl Bem's self-perception theory. Identify when and how people use observations of their own behavior as a source of self-knowledge.
Self Perception theory: the theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs.
We only infer our feelings when we aren't sure how we feel, if you are for sure about the response you don't need to observe your behavior.
5.10 Describe the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and the overjustification effect. Define task-contingent and performance-contingent rewards. Identify conditions under which overjustification can be avoided.
Intrinsic motivation: the desire to to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting not because of external rewards or pressures.
Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy it or find the task interesting.
Overjusticfication: The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons. Basically after a big reward they don't want to do it alone anymore without the reward.
Task contingent rewards: rewards that are given for preforming a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Preformace Contingent Rewards: rewards that are based on how well we prefer a task.
5.11 Identify the two factors or steps required to understand our own emotional states according to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion. Discuss the implications of Schachter's theory for the idea that emotions are somewhat arbitrary. Discuss how the two-factor theory explains the misattribution of arousal.
Two factor theory of emotion: The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two step self-perception process in which people first experience physical arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it.
1.we must fist experience physical arousal
2. then we must seek an appropriate explanation or label for it.
Peoples emotions are somewhat arbitrary.
Misattribution of Arousal goes with the two factor theory of emotion because you have too have two emotions and ones physiological and
Define misattribution of arousal and indetify the circumstances that make it likely to occur.
Misattribution of Arousal: The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do.
( you think your heart is pounding so hard bc you saw the love of your life, but your really jus nervous for your test)
5.13 Describe fixed and growth mindsets and identify their implications for academic, athletic, and other types of performance, especially in terms of how individuals react to failure experiences.
Fixed mindset: The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change.
Growth mindset: The idea that our ablitlites are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow.
People with fixed mindsets are likely to give up after a failure, if they fail they think it must be a sign that they don't have what it takes
5.14 Identify the postulates of social comparison theory. Discuss when people engage in social comparison and with whom they choose to compare themselves when their goal is to construct an accurate self-image. Discuss the motives underlying upward and downward social comparisons and the consequences of engaging in each.
Social Comparison Theory: The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitude by comparing ourselves to other people.
1.People socially compare when there is no objective standard to measure themselves against and when they are uncertain about themselves in a particular area.
2.the answer depends on whether your goal is to get an accurate assessment of your abilities, to determine how to be on top or to feel better about yourself.
Upward Social Comparison: Comaparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability. (this could be good but it could be bad, cause you to always fail)
Donward Social Comparison: comparing oursleves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability. (you may feel good about yourself, but your not really achieving as much as you could)
Describe social tuning and how our views can be affected by other people.
Social Tuning: The process whereby people adopt another person attitudes.
-Can happen when we meet someone for the first time.
5.16 Describe the self-regulatory resource model. Describe situations is which controlling oneself may be difficult and strategies for improving self-control.
Simply believing that willpower is an unlimited resources can help. Those who hold this belief are better able to kWh going and avoid being depleted by a difficult task.
Also enagging in prayer can help,
Thought depressions: does not work very well its when we try to push thoughts out of our mind
You have more self control in the morning.
5.17 Define impression management.
Impression Management: The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen.
Polticions do this a lot
we do this in everyday life we want people to think highly and a certain way about us even if its not 100% true.
Define the two impression management stratgies described. Distinguish between two ways that people self-handicap. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of self-handicapping and when ingratiation may not be effective.
Ingration is an impression management strategy: its when you use flattery or praise to make yourself likable to another person of higher status.
Advatages: we all enjoy having someone be nice to us
Disadvantage: people can see you insecure thats why your saying these things
Self Handicapping is another impression management strategy: here people create obstacles and excuses for themselves when they do poorly on something
Advantage: you may feel better about yourself
Disadvatage: if you are already thinking of a self handicap to use on your test most likely you'll do worse cause you were thinking about using that as an excuse
Explain how culture affects impression management.
Some things are more important to different cultures on what makes them look good.
Like japan the need lots of people at a funeral so they will seriously go rent people to go to a funeral
5.20 Define self-esteem. Describe the benefits of having high self-esteem.
Self esteem: Peoples evaluations of their own self worth-that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent.
You are more happy, no depression guilty feeling stuff like that and you have thoughts protecting from your own mortality.
5.21 Define narcissism and describe how it differs from high self-esteem.
Narcissim: the combination of excessive self love and lack of empathy towards others. Basically you don't care about anyone and you are obsessed with yourself.
6.1 Describe the theory of cognitive dissonance. Discuss the conditions that elicit dissonance and what strategies we use to reduce dissonance. Define impact bias and explain why it occurs. Describe how self-esteem effects the likelihood of experiencing dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance: The discomfort that people feel when two cognitions beliefs or attitudes conflict, or when they behave in ways that are inconsistent with their conception of themselves.
To reduce dissoance:
1.) By chnaging our behavior to bring in line with the dissonant cognition.
2.) By attempting ti justify our behavior thorough changing one of the dissonant cognitions.
3.) By attempting to justify our behavior by adding new cognotions
Impact bias: the tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of ones emotional reaction to future negative events.
Dissonace is mostly unconscious
The people with the highest self esteem experience the most dissonance when they behave in ways country to their high option of themselves and they will work harder to reduce that than people with lower self esteem.
6.2 Identify the consequences of making important decisions. Define postdecision dissonance. Explain how changing our attitudes after a decision serves to reduce dissonance.
Postdecsion Dissonance: dissonced arousad after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternative.
We reduce dissonance after making a decision to make ourselves feel better about our perchance
6.3 Identify the role played by the permanence of decisions in producing dissonance. Define "lowballing" and explain why the technique is effective.
The more important the disecion the greater the dissonance.
The more permeant decision the stronger the need to reduce dissonance.
Lowballing: a strategy whereby sales people induce a customer to agree to purchase a product at low cost, then says oh it was an error and then raises the price but the customer still agrees to make the purchase even with he bigger charge,
Its effective because people already get their sites on it they get excited, they start planning on where to put it or when to drive it and your already there so your like what the heck you buy it.
6.4 Describe the effects of deciding to behave morally or immorally on the experience of dissonance and the reduction of dissonance.
You may behaving immortally but you justify it because maybe you don't want to hurt your friends fellings or you don't want to get into trouble.
6.5 Describe the evidence for the biological and evolutionary basis for cognitive dissonance
Studies prove that when we pick one option we are likely to stay with it even if another comes along the reason may be that there is an evolutionary benefit to sticking with a tried and true option. They can see cognitive dissonance on machines in our brains.
6.6 Describe how cultural background affects the experience of cognitive dissonance.
Dissonace is different everywhere because different cultures have different things that matter to them. But its still everywhere in the world.
6.7 Define what is meant by justification of effort. Identify the consequences of working hard to attain something worthless and the importance of volunteering such effort.
Justification effort: the tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to obtain.
Nobody wants to work really hard to be let down so they volunteer the effort anyway in the end even if its not what they thought because they worked so hard to get their.
6.8 Distinguish between internal and external justification. Define counter-attitudinal advocacy. Describe the effects of inducing counter-attitudinal advocacy with minimum external justification.
External justification: a reason or an explanation for dissent personal behavior that resides outside the individual. (such as receiving a large reward or adovding a huge punishment)
Interal Justificaion: The reduction of dissance by changing something about oneself like your attitude or behavior.
Counterattidial Advocay: stating an option or attuide that runs counter to ones private belied. "saying becomes believing"
What we believe begins to conform more and more to the lie we told.
6.9 Explain how insufficient punishment leads to self-persuasion. Describe the effects of self-persuasion on behavior. Describe how self-persuasion works.
Insufficient punshment: not enough punishment for a motive.
The kid that receives insufficient punishment docent really know why he's obeying so he has to self persuade himself to obey like oh I'm obeying because I'm tired of hitting my little brother anyways.
Self Persuasion: a lomg lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification.
6.10 Describe the hypocrisy induction and how it has been used to target behaviors with health consequences and to target social problems such as racism.
Hypocrisy Induction: the arousal of dissaonce by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the incosnsity between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead them to more responsible behavior.
the experiment with the condoms and safe sex.
6.11 Describe the Ben Franklin effect.
You will like the person more after doing a favor for them.
6.12 Discuss the effects of harming others. Identify the causes and consequences of dehumanizing victims
You justify what you did the the person by degrating that person saying they deserved it they aren't one of us calling them names. Its scary to dehumanize someone because it could get out of hand or escalate.
6.13 Discuss the effects that cognitive dissonance may have in the real world and why it may motivate individuals to make bad decisions.
Because you feel like you could always justify it
7.1 Define an attitude and identify its components. Discuss the differences between cognitively based attitudes and affectively based attitudes
Attitude: evaulations of people, objects and ideas.
3 componets of attitudes:
1.cognitive component- the thought or beleifs
2.affective component- emotional reaction
3.behavioral component-how people act
Cognitively based attitudes: an attitude based primary on peoples beliefs about the properties of an attitude object. ( you like the car, you like the boy not worried about if they are bad for you)
Affectively based attitudes: an attitude based more on peoples feelings and values than their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object. (politics, sex, religion)
7.2 Explain how affectively based attitudes are formed via classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning.
They are conditioned to a certain stumli that gets a response form them due to their beliefs or feelings.
And operant conditioing- you behave in ways more or less due to punishment or reward. Having again to do with beliefs like how you were raised. Yes ma'am no ma'am bc i was in trouble if i didn't say that. Now its one of my values and beliefs
7.3 Define a behaviorally based attitude and discuss how it is formed.
Behavior Based Attitude: a attitude based on observation of how one behaves toward an object.
Darlym Bems Self perception Theory: People don't know how they feel until they seem themselves behave.
7.4 Describe the difference between implicit and explicit attitudes.
Explict attitudes: attitudes that we can consciously endorse and easily report.
Implict Attuides: attitudes that exist outside of our consious awareness.
Explict attitude toward racism: i m not racist
Implict attuide toward rasim: thers a lot of african americans around me and I am suddenly judging them
7.5 Discuss the role of cognitive dissonance theory in attitude change. Identify the conditions under which attitude change via cognitive dissonance is most likely. Distinguish between internal and external justification and discuss the role of "counter-attitudinal advocacy" in producing dissonance.
7.6 Explain why advertisers favor persuasive communications over dissonance techniques to change attitudes.
Although dissonace techniques are good it would be hard to make every smoker in american make speeches under just the right condition of internal justification. To change many peoples attendees you would have to resort to persuasive communication such as a speech or television advertisement.
7.7 Describe the Yale Attitude Change Approach (Figure 7.2). Identify and define the three factors in an influence setting emphasized by this approach. Provide examples of each factor. Identify a problem with the Yale Attitude Change Approach.
They looked are who says what to whom, looked at source of communication, the communication itself and the nature of the audience.
Source of communication: how expert or attractive the speaker was
Communication itself: the quality of the argument/speech
The nature of the audience: hoe hostile or friendly the ausdeinece was.
Problem with YCA: It was unclear when one factor should be emphasized over another.
7.8 Describe the aim of attitude change models like Petty and Cacioppo's Elaboration Likelihood Model.
basically when they will be more influenced by the arguments and what the speech is saying VS more superficial characteristics like who's giving it and how long it is.
7.9 Identify the two routes to persuasion described in the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Identify the factors that determine the route people take. Identify factors that increase people's motivation and ability to pay attention to the arguments. Discuss how attitudes changed by the central route to persuasion differ from attitudes changed by the peripheral route.
Centrally: when they are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the argument
Peripherally: when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead syawed by surface charterstics
7.10 Identify the role of fear-arousing communications in persuasion. Describe the conditions under which fear appeals foster or inhibit attitude change via the central route.
When you try to change peoples attitudes but arousing their fears.
Like commercials about texting and driving and smoking and wearing seat belts.
7.11 Describe the process whereby emotions act as heuristics to persuasion according to the heuristic-systematic model of persuasion.
You ask yourself how do i feel about this a lot and maybe its a bad thing because you could say well yeah i feel great about this dog! But really its just a nice sunny day and you truly don't want the dog.
7.12 Identify the most effective means of changing affectively and cognitively based attitudes.
7.13 Discuss cross-cultural differences in the bases for attitudes.
7.14 Identify the purpose of attitude inoculation.
If you have an argument you use this because you can get exposed to little does against their arguments over and over before they make their big argument. It leads to later full blown attempts for people to change their arguments.
7.15 Discuss what product placement is, why it is effective, and how individuals can resist being persuaded by product placement.
its like how people put stuff right when and where you would want it so you would be more likely to buy it or want it. You can resit better if you know and have a fair warning that they are tying to do this.
7.16 Describe the application of attitude innoculation to the issue of helping young people resist peer pressure.
role playing, to go over sineroerous with them and come backs. Percussion techniques
7.17 Identify a potential disadvantage of making people resistant to attitude change. Discuss the role of reactance when persuasion attempts "boomerang."
People don't want to feel like their freedom is being taken away or their being made a fool of they can actually end up doing more if this happens.
7.20 Discuss the controversial topic of subliminal advertising and evaluate the claim that subliminal messages are effective.
There is no evidence that subliminal messages in advertisement have any influence on peoples behaviors. But have been found in controlled laboratories.
7.21 Describe how advertising may impact stereotypes.
Always show the dad on the lawn mowing commercial and always show the mom on the dishwashing commercials.
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