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Terms in this set (81)
What are X-rays?
A form of electromagnetic radiation
What do x-rays have?
3 things we care about
how much energy
the force of energy
how long exposed for
What is "electromagnetic radiation"?
Method of transporting energy through space
All radiant energy travels in a waveform along?
A straight path
What is a "wavelength"?
The distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave
How is light measured?
By its wavelength (in nanometers) or frequency (in Hertz)
One wavelength equals?
The distance between two successive wave crests or troughs
Frequency (Hertz) equals?
The number of waves that passes a given point per second
Electromagnetic radiation that has a short wavelength equals?
Long wavelength equals?
Higher frequency equals?
More penetrating power
All forms of electromagnetic radiation are grouped according to their?
Wavelength and frequency
Waves two certain variable properties?
Length and height
When radiation is produced, the wavelength and frequency depend on?
The power used to produce the radiation
What does Atom mean in Greek?
What does an atom contain in it's nucleus?
Protons and neutrons
What does an atom contain in it's rings?
Most of the atom is?
What is an atom?
Basic part of matter
The part of the atom that has a neutral charge?
The part of the atom that has a negative charge?
The part of the atom that has a positive charge?
When are X-rays produced?
When the electrons slow down or stop
What is the x-ray beam composed of?
Bundles of energy that travel in a wave
Quanta are also referred to as?
3 facts about quanta?
Have no mass or electrical charge
Carried by the wave
Wavelength change is related to?
The energy of the amount of radiation
Short wavelength allow x-rays to?
Penetrate items that absorb or reflect visible light
What do x-rays produce?
Invisible image on photographic film that is seen once it is processed
X-rays can ____ or ____ the atoms and molecules?
Excite or ionize
X-rays can cause ____ in living tissue?
7 parts of the x-ray machine?
Production of x-rays involves?
2 types of anodes?
Name Roentgen's 12 properties of x-rays?
Highly penetrating invisible rays that are a form of electromagnetic radiation
Produced over a wide variety of energies and wavelengths
Release little heat when passing through matter
Travel in straight lines
Travel at the speed of light
Can ionize matter
Cause fluorescence of certain crystals
Cannot be focused by a lens
Affect photographic paper
Produce chemical and biological changes in matter
Produce secondary and scatter radiation
When did Roentgen discover x-rays?
When did Roentgen win the Nobel prize?
What are Amps?
How many electrons flow past a certain point per second
You cannot convert watts to
since watts are power and amps are coulombs per second (like converting gallons to miles).
Watt was named after
James Watt from Scotland
1 Watt =
1 ampere (A) >flowing through a circuit at 1 volt/second
The conversion of Amps to Watts at fixed voltage is governed by
the equation Watts = Amps x Volts
What are volts?
A measure of how much force that each electron is under, which we call "potential"
How do we get the x-ray power at a veterinary hospital?
Electricity is generated at a power station
Loaded onto high-voltage transmission lines
Dumped to a power station close to the clinic
Carried to transformers on utility poles
Power is brought to the clinic at 220 volts and a minimum of 80 amperes (preferably 100 amperes)
X-ray unit must convert it to the power necessary to produce x-rays
example of amps, volts and watts
Think of water in a hose. A gallon a minute (think amps) just dribbles out if it is under low pressure (think low voltage). But if you restrict the end of the hose, letting the pressure build up, the water can have more power (like watts), even though it is still only one gallon a minute.
Source of x-rays?
X-rays tubes are composed of?
An anode and a cathode enclosed in a vacuum within a glass envelope surrounded by a lead housing
What are watts?
Volts times amps
A few electrons under a lot of potential can supply a lot of power, or a lot of electrons at a low potential can supply the same power.
Is anode positive or negative?
IS the cathode positive or negative?
Filaments from the cathode are heated causing what?
Electrons boil and form a cloud within a focusing cup
Electrons are accelerated across the vacuum and crash into a target on the anode
Collision created heat and energy
Small window to allow x-rays to leave the tube
Cathode consists of?
2 coiled-wire (tungsten) filaments
Two electrical circuits
Heated to boil off electrons
Two sizes (smaller= small target+higher quality)
Contains the filaments
Two electrical circuits?
What is the focal spot?
Target region of the anode
Where is the focal spot located?
On the anode
What is the focal spot made of?
How is the size of the focal spot determined?
By the size of the electron beam accelerating from the cathode to the anode
Small focal spot resulting from electrons from the small filament will produce?
Larger focal spot resulting in electrons from the large filament can use ____ but will result in___?
Higher tube current. Loss of detail
Target area is angled to allow x-rays to leave the tube through the window and to aid in creating smaller, more compact effective focal spot
Heel effect is related to?
The angle of the target area and absorption by the anode and target area
X-ray beam is more intense at what side?*
The thickest part of the patient should be placed towards the _____ side?
What does the Rectifier do?
Corrects the direction of the power as it travels to the x-ray tube
How does the rectifier work?
The switching of the alternating current sends the power first through the rectifier circuit one way and then, when the current alternates, it sends it through the complimentary rectifiers
The end result is an alternating current rectified to become a direct current****
Single phase full wave rectified circuits use?
All of the available current
How does the single phase full wave rectified circuit travel through the x-ray unit?
The negative pulse becomes positive
Occasionally the rectifiers fail and?
The current is only half wave recognized
The images will be exactly ____ if the rectifiers fail?
50% too light
Three phase circuit is used to?
Correct uneven power supply
A less expensive method of x-ray production is?
The high-frequency generator
With high-frequency generators many phases are?
Overlapped continuously and the ripple stays very low
High-frequency generator allows for more?
X-rays per exposure and reduces the x-ray technique cost by about 30%
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
rad test-lect #0-ch 5 (wkbk ?s) part A
Combo with "Vet271-Technique chart" and…
soft tissue radiographs
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