How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

135 terms

Arts & Humanities

Study cards for IWC1 at WGU
STUDY
PLAY
_____________ is a skill and imagination used to create or produce aesthetic objects
Art
Which of the following purposes of art is met by a Baroque composer writing a requiem mass?
Illuminating the spiritual
Which of the following functions of art is best reflected in an anti-war protest song?
Political and social commentary
Artists often employ _______________to achieve the effect of three-dimensions on flat surfaces.
shading and perspective
The use of the same visual element several times in a work of art is called:
repetition.
The strength, or purity of a color is its:
intensity
_______________ is the meaning of the work of art.
Content
A natural and comforting arrangement of visual elements is called:
harmony
Which of the following purposes of art is most clearly reflected in a documentary on the NASA space shuttle program?
Representing the world
The uneven distribution of elements throughout an artwork is:
asymmetry
______________ is a work of art from a specific historical time or place.
Artifact
A sense or feeling of depth, either actual or implied, is called _____________.
space
_________________ is when artwork creates a sense of motion through line, form, and juxtaposition
Dynamics
______________has the properties of direction, width and length. The path of a moving point through space
Line
The surface quality of materials, either actual or implied, is called:
texture
An artist's use of color is sometimes called _____________.
palette
In two-dimensional art, texture is ______________.
Figurative
_______________ makes a work of art feel cohesive and finished, with all the elements looking as though they belong together
Unity
Which of the following functions of art is reflected in a museum collection of 19th century Wedgewood china?
Historical artifact
____________ is the process of making works of art by transferring an inked image to another surface (usually paper).
Printmaking
In ________________, an image is printed by forcing ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing. This method of printmaking allows printers to make large areas of uniform color in their printed designs.
serigraphy
In __________________, an image is printed by leaving the image surface raised, with remaining areas cut away, as with woodcut or linoleum cut printing.
Relief printing
In _____________ , an image is printed using the antipathy of oil and water; a flat surface with a design area (image) that is ink-receptive is printed and the non-printed area is ink-repellent.
lithography
In ____________, an image is printed from a recessed design. An incising or etching technique may be used to create the design on the surface of the plate to be pressed against paper.
intaglio
__________ is the thick application of paint creating a textured surface on the canvas
Impasto
______________ involves burning an image onto metal with acid, which allows for creating intaglio with precise lines.
Etching
_____________ is a method of etching (intaglio) that imitates the broad tints of a water color.
Aquatint
_______________ is any method of producing an image by using the action of light on a light-sensitive medium such as a film or a sensor.
Photography
named after its French inventor Louis Daguerre, an early (1839) photographic process where an image is made directly onto a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate, without using a negative
Daguerreotype photography
This American photographer was a leading advocate of Pictorialism.
Alfred Stieglitz
Is this true or false?
Drawing is confined to the use of dry media.
False
Serigraphy is also known as ____________.
screenprinting
Photography as a visual art requires the photographer to:
design an image
compose an image
execute an image
A water-based paint that uses egg, glue, or casein as a binder is called:
tempera
the ordered recurrence or repetition of elements
Rhythm
One advantage of this media for painting is that it does not yellow with age.
acrylic paint
This technique creates the illusion of depth through gradations of light and shade.
Chiaroscuro
Straight or pure photography was advocated by these photographers.
Group f/64
In drawing, using dots for tone, texture, and shading is called __________.
Stippling
Two-dimensional art that is so naturalistic that it appears to have depth and distance has been dubbed by the French ________________.
Trompe l'oeil
The printmaking technique of ___________ prints an image from a recessed design incised or etched into the surface of a plate.
Intaglio
____________ is the size, shape, and volume of forms, occupies a more prominent place in three-dimensional art. T
Mass
Is the least likely factor for a three-dimensional artwork having greater impact on the viewer than that of a two-dimensional work of art.
The use of perspective
The three-dimensional _____________ is typically the most prominent line.
artwork's silhouette
______________ can be defined as a three-dimensional work of art.
Sculpture
_____________ A sculpture employing three-dimensions and meant to be viewed from any and all angles.
Full round sculpture
_____________ A sculpture employing three dimensions, raised from or attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side. Mount Rushmore is an example.
Relief sculpture
_____________ A sculpture, such as a mobile, in which the artist employs flat and elongated (almost two-dimensional) materials. Example: Vertical foliage, Alexander Calder, 1941
Linear sculpture
_________ is a representation of a person, animal, or event, often for celebratory or monumental purposes. Example: Felix de Welden's U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial (Iwo Jima Memorial) at Arlington National Cemetery
Statue
__________ is a significant person on horseback. Example: Rudolf Siemering's The Washington Monument in Philadelphia
Equestrian sculpture
A _______________ is a representation of a man or woman from the chest up. Example: Bust of Emperor Tiberius
Bust
A __________________ is a sculpture that features moving water. Example: Carl Milles Triton in Stockholm, Sweden
Fountain
A _______________ is a type of kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents. Example: Vertical foliage, Alexander Calder, 1941
Mobile
A ______________ is a type of sculpture which emphasizes the substances or materials from which it is made. Example: Maria Magdalena carved from precious gemstones.
Glyptic
An ______________ is a sculpture designed to make a statement and then cease to exist. Example: Christo and Jeanne-Claude's Wrapped Coast, One Million Square Feet, Little Bay, Australia (1968-69).
Ephemeral sculpture
______________ is when the sculptor molds or casts an artwork.
Substitution
In _______________ sculpture, the image is carved into the stone or material.
sunken relief
This type of sculpture is transitory, designed to make a statement.
Ephemeral
________________ is the science and art of designing buildings, environments, and other structures.
Architecture
Architects consider a variety of ______________ in creating successful structures.
elements
First and foremost, buildings need to withstand the external environment (wind, snow, rain, etc.) and they must be structurally sound (which is where engineering is required)
Technical element
Function represents the practical uses of the building and how that is reflected in its form.
Functional element
Architecture works with space.
Use of space element
What kind of artistic statement is the architect making?
Artistic element
An architectural style that emerged in the 1930s which stressed function and, with the use of new materials, designed buildings to have outside walls of materials such as glass, instead of large heavy walls.
International Style
The belief that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.
Functionalism
The inclusion or combination of several different styles in one composition or work of art.
Eclecticism
The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment.
Scale
The relative relationship of shapes or forms to one another.
Proportion
A curved masonry structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.
Arch
A common structural element of architecture resembling the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Dome
A projecting beam or bracket stabilized by the weight of the wall from which it extends (such as a balcony). Example: Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater house (1935)
Cantilever
An architectural design where horizontal pieces or beams (lintels) are held up by vertical columns (posts).
Post-and-lintel
A decorative device generally placed at the top of a column as a transition for the eye as it moves from post (column) to lintel beam.
Capital
An architectural design where a wall supports itself, roof and floor.
Bearing wall
Construction where a skeletal framework (often steel cages) supports the structure.
Skeleton frame
Ability of a material to withstand bending.
Tensile strength
Ability of a material to withstand crushing.
Compressive strength
_____________________ is the design and construction of three-dimensional outdoor space for beauty and use.
Landscape architecture
A sculpture employing three-dimensions attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side is called:
Relief sculpture
Frederick Law Olmstead is known for his design of:
Central Park (NYC)
A projecting beam or bracket stabilized by the weight of the wall from which it extends is called a:
cantilever
______________ is when a sculptor shapes the material by hand.
Manipulation
Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel is an example of a:
found object sculpture
When a sculptor casts an artwork, he or she is using the process of _______________.
Substitution
A kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents, is called:
Mobile
All of the following are considered a key factor in landscape design.
the function of the design
those for whom the spaces are created
the influence of the particular site and surroundings
Architects who design buildings based on the purpose of the structure are following ___________________.
Functionalism
Variation
how often an element is used and the relationship of one element to another.
__________________ is the representation of objects receding into the distance in two-dimensional art.
Perspective
_____________ is a vivid water-based paint, usually applied to paper, with outstanding brilliance and translucence; also, term for resulting artwork.
Watercolor
_______________ is the relative relationship of shapes or forms to one another in regards to size, height, width, length, or depth.
Proportion
_________________ is the exact duplication of elements (shapes, forms, etc) on either side of a (usually imaginary) straight-lined central axis.
Symmetry
________________ is the shape or mass of an object within an artwork or composition.
Form
_______________ in printing, a technique in which the intended printing surface is left raised, with remaining areas cut away.
Relief
________________________ is a mold from which a sculpture is cast.
Negative
_______________________ is when a viewer considers foreground and background independently and recognizes the separation between them.
Shifting perspective
_______________________ is the use of foreshortening and a vanishing point to create the illusion of depth.
Linear perspective
_________________________________ is the use of light, atmosphere, and haziness to indicate depth or distance.
Aerial or atmospheric perspective
________________ is a way of connecting the parts of a work of art.
Articulation
____________________ is a sculptural relief in which forms extend from the background to at least half their depth.
High relief
___________________ is a painting technique which originated in ancient times, using pigments mixed with melted beeswax as a binder.
Encaustic
______________ is the perception of reflected or emitted light in terms of hue, value, and intensity.
Color
_________________ is the recurrence of the same visual element in a work of art.
Repetition
____________________ is when art is assembled from common every day items. Example: using a bike wheel or other object as art.
Found object
Serigraphy
a printing technique that forces ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing.
Linear sculpture
a sculpture employing two-dimensional materials.
Scale
the size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment.
____________________ is the place to which a viewer's eye is drawn in a work of art.
Focal area
Unity
when all elements in a work of art give a sense of oneness or self-contained completeness.
Drypoint
a printmaking technique (intaglio) involving drawing directly onto the surface of a metal plate with a sharp, pointed tool, often with a diamond point.
Artistic Form
elements (lines, shapes, colors) of a work of art organized to effect participants.
Weathering
the effect of the weather/environment on the surface of an artwork.
Hue
the common name of a color (red, blue, green, yellow) and its position in the spectrum or on the color wheel.
Collage
a composition made of various materials (as paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.
Graphite
a soft form of carbon used in pencils.
Oil paint
a paint made of color pigments mixed in slowly drying oil; its main binding agent for pigment is linseed oil.
Subtraction
when the sculptor carves or cuts away unwanted material to create the work.
Fresco
a painting technique that applies water-based paint to a wet-plaster surface; also, resulting artwork.
Value
the relative lightness or darkness of color.
Balance
a sense of equilibrium in an artwork, achieved through weight, attention, or attraction of visual elements.
Juxtaposition
the side-by-side placement of objects in an artwork or composition.
Addition
when a sculptor adds or combines material (sometimes called built sculpture).
Pastel
a soft, colored chalk stick or crayon made of pigments and a gum binder, usually applied to paper; also, resulting artwork.
Gouache
watercolor to which an opaque white has been added; also, resulting artwork.
Low Relief
sculptural relief that projects very little from the background; also called bas-relief.
_______________ can be defined as an innate or learned ability to appreciate a work of art.
Aesthetic perception
Artistic media
are the materials (and techniques) employed to create works of art.
Media
is the plural of medium.
Visual elements
(line, form, color, space, and texture) are the basic visual material with which artists create works of art.
Visual principles
(repetition, balance, unity, focal area) are ways artists arrange the elements to greatest effect.
Composition
describes an artist's technique, or specific use of the general visual elements and principles.
Rule of Thirds
holds that in a more interesting composition the focal point is not in the center but rather in an outlying area.
Pictorialism
used soft focus, special filters and lens coatings, darkroom manipulation, and innovative printing processes to try to match the aesthetic effects of painting and printmaking. Alfred Stieglitz was a leading advocate of pictorialism.
Group f/64
which included Ansel Adams, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West, advocated straight (or pure) photography, eschewing any manipulation, and looking to depict scenes as realistically as possible.