Global Chapter 30 Test
Terms in this set (40)
the U.S. strategy of keeping communism within its existing boundaries and preventing its further expansion
The brutal dictator who led the Khmer Rouge
A massive and bloody offensive by communist guerrillas against South Vietnamese and American forces on Tet, the Vietnamese New Year, 1968; helped turn American public opinion against military involvement in Vietnam
A soldier in a loosely organized force making surprise raids
The relaxation of Cold War tensions during the 1970s
After Stalin's death in 1953, this person emerged as the new Soviet leader. He shocked top Communist Party members when he publicly denounced Stalin's abuse of power. He maintained the Communist Party's political control, but he closed prison camps and eased censorship. He called for a "peaceful coexistence" with the West
Star Wars Defense System
Started by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, it was a missile defense against unclear attack.
Labor party in Poland
Solidarity led by Lech Walesa
The forced joining together of workers and property into collectives, such as rural collectives that absorb peasants and their land
The non-communist dictator of South Korea
What the Eastern part of mainland Southeast Asia used to be called
Massive aid package offered by the U.S. to Europe to help countries rebuild after WWII
"Openness" in Russian; a Soviet policy of greater freedom of expression introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s
A thin band of territory across the Korean peninsula separating North Korean forces from South Korean forces; established by the armistice of 1953
A political movement and a force of Cambodian communist guerrillas that gained power in Cambodia in 1975
Great Leap Forward
A Chinese Communist program from 1958 to 1960 to boost farm and industrial output that failed miserably
How the Korean War started
After WWII, Korea was temporarily divided along the 38th parallel of latitude. North Korea became a communist ally of the Soviet Union and South Korea's dictatorial non-communist leader was backed by the U.S. Both leaders wanted to rule the entire country, so North Korean troops attacked South Korea in an effort rule all of Korea.
The Chinese leader under the Long Civil War
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks between the United States and the Soviet Union. Its goal was to limit the number of nuclear weapons held by each side.
Muslim religious warriors
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of all goods and services produced in a nation within a particular year
Why GDP rose so much between 1950 and 1970
Japan's success was built on producing goods for export. Japan first sold textiles, but later shifted to selling steel and machinery. By the 1970s, Japanese cars, cameras, and television found eager buyers on the world market
Cuban Missile Crisis
Started in 1962 when the Soviet Union sent nuclear missiles to Cuba and President Kennedy responded by imposing a naval blockade that prevented further Soviet shipments. Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union remove its nuclear missiles from Cuba, and for a few tense days, the world faced a risk of nuclear war over the issue. Finally, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove the Soviet missiles, and war was averted.
What happened in the 1970s that ended prosperity for industrialized democracies
A political crises in the Middle East led to decreased oil exports and oil prices soared worldwide. In America and in other industrialized democracies, higher prices for oil left businesses and consumers with less to spend on other products.
What other countries wanted as the Soviet Union fell apart
Demands for freedom increased. Many Eastern Europeans opposed communist rule. Nationalists resented Russian domination. Revolts had erupted in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, etc.
Why Germany divided
At the end of WWII, the United States, Britain, and France (all democracies) occupied the western portion of Germany. The Soviet Union occupied eastern Germany. The goals for a single German government led to disputes between the Soviet Union and the western powers.
Ho Chi Minh
A nationalist and communists who led guerrilla forces in Vietnam. Fought the French in the First Indochina War
Long time Romanian dictator
a Polish labor union and democracy movement
Organizations that started going against each other after WWII
The United States' North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Western Europe and the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe.
What happened at the end of WWII
After American troops withdrew from the country, the North Vietnamese conquered South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese capital, Saigon, was renamed Ho Chi Minh city in honor of the late leader. The North Vietnamese capital, Hanoi, became the capital of the reunited nation.
Cultural revolution in China
a Chinese Communist program in the late 1960s launched by Mao to purge China of nonrevolutionary tendencies that caused economic and social damage
Economies that Communist nations have
How the Vietnam War was part of the Cold War
The United States sent supplies, military advisors, and thousands of troops to South Vietnam. The Soviet Union and China sent aid to help the communist North Vietnam
Why Afghanistan was known as the Soviet Union's Vietnam
In 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in a love war in Afghanistan. Battling mujahedin in the mountains of Afghanistan proved as difficult as fighting guerrillas in the jungles of Vietnam had been for Americans.
Why America entered the Vietnam War
American foreign policy planners saw the situation in Vietnam as part of the global Cold War. They developed the domino theory, the view that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause noncommunist governments across Southeast Asia to fall to communism, like a row of dominoes. America's leaders wanted to prevent this from happening
How did Gorbachev's reforms lead to the breakup of the Soviet Union?
Gorbachev's reforms led to the breakup of the Soviet Union because they brought economic turmoil. Gorbachev sought to avoid Cold-War confrontations. He signed arms control treaties with the United States and pulled Soviet troops out of Afghanistan. He ended censorship and encouraged people to discuss the country's problems openly. To improve efficiency, he reduced the size of the bureaucracy and backed limited private enterprise. His reforms made factory managers rather than central planners responsible for decisions. They also allowed farmers to sell produce on the free market.
The belief that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause noncommunist governments across Southeast Asia to fall to communism, like a row of dominoes
a defensive line around the city of Pusan, in the southeast corner of Korea, held by South Korean and United Nations forces in 1950 during the Korean War; marks the farthest advance of North Korean forces
Period of reduced economic activity
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