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Toxins in the blood


A group of signs and symptoms associated with a specific disease.


A pathogen that is found in nature as a parasite.

facultative saprobe

Additional types of damage that follow a serious infection


An infection that is at first confined to a specific area of the body but then moves throughout the body to other sites.


A disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans.


An inanimate object that serves as a vehicle for the spread of disease.


A pathogen that has the potential to be a parasite.

facultative parasite

The nature host or habitat of a pathogen


Inanimate materials that commonly serve as a source of infectious agents, such as food, air, blood.


The transfer of an infectious agent or genetic material by a carrier.


A pathogen that requires a living host for survival.

obligate parasite

The introduction of a pathogen into the body through a puncture wound.


The rapid multiplication of bacteria in the blood.


A disease that is spreads from person to person.


______ are molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells.


B lymphocytes

are activated by TH interaction.

An immunoglobulin is made up of four polypeptide chains, two heavy and two light. The hypervariable region which binds the antigen lies

in the FAb

Surface receptors on immune system cells function in

identification of self/nonself, communication, and cell development

"Self" markers in human cells

are glycoproteins of the MHC.

_______ are large glycoprotein molecules that serve as the specific receptors of B cells and as antibodies.

Immunoglobulin molecules

T cells

function in helping other immune cells.

Materials that work well as immunogens include

proteins, lipoproteins, polysaccharides

The portion of a molecule which elicits an immune response is called

an epitope

_____ act when attached to a larger carrier to trigger immune responses.


Antigen presenting cells include

macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells

During clonal selection and antigen binding

B cells recognize microbes and their foreign antigens.

This immunoglobulin gives long-term immunity and is associated with memory response.


The only immunoglobin that is secreted outside of tissues (found in tears, saliva, mucus, and colostrums), secretory is a dimer held together by a J chain.


_________ are the result of B cell activation and secrete specific antibody. They are large, specialized, and the most numerous of B cell progeny.

plasma cells

______ is the capacity of certain T cells to kill a specific target cell.


The anamnestic response to an antigen results from

prior antigen exposure.

"Cell mediated immunity" refers to

T cell responses to antigen.

Protection from infection obtained through medical procedures is called

artificial immunity

Artificial passive immunity usually involves administration of


Active immunization is synonymous with


Vaccines typically can use any of the following EXCEPT

live, virulent microbes.

T/F. The two features that most characterize the third line of defense are sensitivity and memory.


T/F. The Clonal Selection Theory says that early undifferentiated monocytes in the embryo and fetus undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate hundreds of millions of different cell types, each carrying a particular receptor specificity.


T/F Immunogens are proteins or other complex molecules of high molecular weight that trigger the immune response in the host.


T/F APCs function by binding foreign antigen to their cell surfaces for presentation to neutrophils for phagocytosis.


T/F The memory response means that the second exposure to an antigen calls forth a much faster and more vigorous response than the first.


T/F Attenuation is any process that kills a virus or bacteria to negate its virulence during vaccine production.


T/F Vaccination programs seek to protect the individual directly through raising the antibody titer and indirectly through the development of herd immunity.


Surface protection is classified as

innate nonspecific

A healthy functioning immune system is responsible for all of the following except one. Identify the function that is NOT one of the roles of the immune system.

creation of barriers to deter the invasion of microbes

The reticuloendothelial system (RES)

provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs.

The majority of white blood cells in circulation include

neutrophils and lymphocytes.


carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.

____ provides an auxiliary route for the return of extracellular fluid to the circulatory system proper.

The lymphatic system

_______ are produced by leukocytes and fibroblasts. It inhibits virus replication and cell division and increases the action of certain lymphocytes that kill other cells.


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