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Balance theory

Strive for balance & consistency in our lives, social relationship, attitudes, & behaviors.


The ability to get someone to do something you want them to do

Power Sources

-Use of Force
-Control over resources
-Control over people


Legitimate right to tell someone what to do. (Legitimate of Power)

Traditional authority

Based on longstanding ways of doing things. Done for centuries

Charismatic authority

Based on exceptional personal qualities of the leader.

Rational-legal authority

Based on formal legal documents, written laws/ specify how leader is chosen, how long they hold position

Expert authority

Based on specialized knowledge.

The norm of reciprocity

States that when we get something from someone else that creates a responsibility to give something back.

Lawrence v Texas

Convicted of crimes against nature.


Most prominent Christian leader. Got castrated so he wouldn't feel the sexual urge.


is any act that will evoke social sanctions where people show their disapproval. (what someone does)

Deviance sanctions

Internalization of norms
Gossip & social approbation
Economic sanctions
Legal sanctions

Emile Durkheim

Noted 2 things:
-Every society has deviance
-Deviance performs some function for society


use term now to describe any characteristics that if it is known about it will cause that person to be devalued in eyes of dominant society

Physical blemishes

describe something wrong with a person's body. (AIDS)

Moral blemishes

problem with person's moral character (criminal, prostitutes, AIDS)

Tribal blemishes

result to belonging to devalued group in society. by race or ethnicity, social class, by sex.

The Medicalization of Deviance

Refers to attempts to find biological/psychatric cause for all unwanted behavior.


Hiding your stigma so other people don't think you have it. Pass self as ordinary person


Admitting the stigma wither explicitly or implicitly. Engaging in some strategy to make stigma less intrusive in social interaction.

The "OWN"

other people who have that stigma/anyone you could be talking about.

The "Straights"

people in society who do not have that specific stigma.

The "WISE"

people who know someone has a stigma but instead of treating em differently, they accept them & treat em normal.

Karl Marx Idea of Social Class

People can become wealthy/poweful

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

1. Income
2.Educational credentials
3. Occupational prestige

C. Wright Mills
The Power Elite

Certain individuals coming from overlapping social circles at the very top of America society where retrained from birth in the knowledge that some day they will be making decisions that effect millions of people

Human Capital

is what our position is based off of. Describes indiv resources that a person brings to a job.

Social capital

is made up of our social categories and the social groups we belong to. m or f/ religion/ social networks

Cultural capital

Include cultural knowledge/artifacts that we consume

High Brow Culture

Only wealthy people take part:

Low Brow Culture

Entertainment for the masses:
-hollywood movies
-popular genre of music

Race-(folk definition)

A category of people treated as distinct based on physical characteristics to which social importance has been assigned.

Race-(biology definition)

Interbreeding population with genetic characteristics that differ from other populations.


very dark skin


brown/copper skin

William Julius Wilson

Many problems we perceive as race problems in this country are really not race problems; instead they are social problems.

Morris Rosenberg
Conceiving the Self

Gave self esteem tests.


Biological makeup; role in reproduction


Expected behaviors & dispositions

Sandra Bam
3 Lenses of Gender

Biological Essentialism
Gender polarization

Courtesy stigma

give person stigma bcuz of close association with other people who do have stigma (family members of criminals)

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