things that look familiar but are part of a constellations and not one themselves. Examples= big and little dipper
A sphere that encompassed the globe where every star was plastered to that and it was believed that this sphere moved. This ancient belief was an attempt to understand the night sky and which doesn't really exist
Alpha and the greek alphabet
The brightest star in the constellation is always referred to as alpha followed by beta etc.
horizontal coordinates that are added 10 degrees when going north about the equator where its zero and subtract 10 degrees going south
a day according to the sun which equals 24 hours. Longer because it takes into account that we are revolving around the sun as well rotating on earth's axis. this difference is one of 4 minutes
a day measured by the stars= 23 hours and 56 minutes which is the true measure of rotation
winter solstice (December 21st)
when the sun is tilted fartherest away from the sun. This produces the shorest days and nights
spring time occurs on march 21st and the sun is in the sky equal amount of time that it isn't
path way of the sun which passes through 13 costallations which is where we get our zodiac signs from.
sun moves this way in the sky as well which is a wobble of the earth much like a spinning top. this wobble that has taken place over 26,000 years which has made our zodiac sign change and it is not what we thought it was when it was made.
measure stars by using the baseline of the Earth. Tells us how much something is from us in the sky . has to be close in order to work. if there is a small parallax than the object is far away. if large parallax than the object is close
believed in geocentric (earth centered) universe. Also believed in uniform circular motion orbiting the earth in a uniform motion.
the planets orbit around themselves to explain the movements of the planets and why they move backwards and change brightness
Aristarchus of samus
he believed that the sun at the which is called heliocenteric and that the earth is on an axis
realization that earth is not the center of the univerese and everything traveled around the sun
when we pass planets that are further away than us on their own orbit that seem to "back-up"
Astronomical unit (Au)
the distance between the earth and the sun. if you know how fast a planet is going around the sun you can determine how far away it is