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Chapter 4

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STUDY
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Which one of the following is not one of the four main tissue categories?
osseous tissue
The tissue that always has a "top" and a "bottom" is
epithelial tissue.
Characteristics of epithelia include all of the following except
extracellular matrix.
The junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the
gap junction.
Functions of epithelia include all of the following, except
supporting muscle cells.
Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have ________ at their free surface.
microvilli
A type of intercellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed a(n)
occluding junction.
Dead skin cells are shed in thin sheets because they are held together by "spots" of proteoglycan reinforced by intermediate filaments. Such strong intercellular connections are called
desmosomes.
Epithelial cells exhibit modifications that adapt them for
secretion.
Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by
a basal lamina.
Which tissue lines the small intestine and the stomach?
simple columnar epithelium
A layer of glycoproteins that prevents leakage of materials from connective tissues into epithelia is the
lamina lucida.
Epithelia specialized for providing sensations of smell, taste, sight, equilibrium, and hearing are known as
neuroepithelia.
Germinative cells
divide continually to produce new epithelial cells.
In stratified epithelia adapted to resist mechanical forces, which of the following types of cell-to-cell junctions are especially abundant?
desmosomes
Close examination of a healthy organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels and one surface of the cells lines the cavity of the organ. This tissue is a type of
epithelium.
Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ________ tissue.
epithelial
Transitional epithelium is found
lining the urinary bladder.
The heart and blood vessels are lined by
simple squamous epithelium.
You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the
trachea
Glands that secrete their product by the bursting of cells are
holocrine glands
Cells that are flat and thin are classified as
squamous
Mesothelium is to the body cavities as endothelium is to the
heart and blood vessels.
The epithelia that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as
simple squamous.
Glands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are
endocrine glands
The two major types of cell layering in epithelia are
simple and stratified.
The epithelium that forms air sacs in the lungs is
simple squamous epithelium.
The function of simple cuboidal epithelium is
absorption and secretion.
The study of cells shed from epithelial surfaces, often for diagnostic purposes, is termed
exfoliative cytology.
Secretions through a duct might provide ________, whereas ductless secretions act as ________.
enzymes; hormones
The Pap test for cervical cancer utilizes
exfoliative cytology.
Cells that are specialized for secretion
exhibit polarity.
Watery perspiration is an example of a(n) ________ secretion
merocrine
Which of the following statements about simple epithelia is false?
They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or chemical stress.
The pancreas produces ________ secretions.
exocrine and endocrine
Unicellular exocrine glands secrete
mucus.
A gland formed by cells arranged in a blind pocket with a single unbranched duct would be called
simple alveolar.
Which of the following tissues are classified as "connective tissue proper"?
1. areolar connective tissue
2. adipose tissue
3. fibrocartilage
4. dense irregular connective tissue
1, 2, and 4
Which cell produces the protein fibers in areolar connective tissue?
fibroblast
Blood is which type of tissue?
connective
The sticky material between cells of areolar connective tissue is called the
ground substance
Cells that store fat are called
adipocytes.
The framework or stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ________ tissue
reticular connective
The dominant fiber type in dense connective tissue is
collagen.
Each of the following is an example of dense connective tissue, except
areolar tissue.
The three categories of connective tissues are
connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.
Two classes of macrophages include
fixed macrophages and free macrophages.
Two types of microphages include
neutrophils and eosinophils.
Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are
dense irregular connective tissues.
What type of cell makes up almost half the volume of blood?
erythrocyte
Wharton's jelly is a form of
mucous connective tissue
Which of the following connective tissue cells produces collagen?
fibroblasts
________ attach skeletal muscles to bones, and ________ connect one bone to another.
Tendons; ligaments
The three types of protein fibers in connective tissue are
collagen, reticular, and elastic.
White fat is found in ________, while brown fat is found in ________.
adults; infants
Cells that engulf bacteria or cell debris within loose connective tissue are
macrophages.
The most common type of cartilage is ________ cartilage.
hyaline
Loose connective tissue functions in all of the following ways, except
provide strong connections between muscles and bones.
Antibodies are produced by
plasmocytes.
Cells that respond to injury by dividing to assist in connective tissue repair are
mesenchymal stem cells.
Osseous tissue is also called
bone
Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of
cartilage.
Which type of connective tissue is found in the trachea and between the ribs and sternum?
hyaline cartilage
A tissue with a gel matrix and cells inside lacunae is
cartilage
Cartilage is separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous
perichondrium.
Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to
bone.
Damage to a joint cartilage is affecting which type of tissue?
supporting connective tissue
Unlike cartilage, bone
highly vascular.
Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?
mucous
The reduction of friction between the parietal and visceral surfaces of an internal cavity is the function of
serous membranes.
The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the
peritoneum.
Adhesions between abdominopelvic organs occur when
serous membranes are damaged.
Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the
superficial fascia between skin and muscle.
The framework of connective tissue between the skin and underlying muscles is called the
superficial fascia.
Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends with the tendon?
deep fascia
Tissue that is specialized for contraction is ________ tissue.
muscle
Myosatellite cells are found in association with
skeletal muscle.
Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of
cardiac muscle tissue.
The muscle tissue that shows no striations is ________ muscle.
smooth
Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ________ tissue
neural
All of the following are true of neurons, except that
they are a very specialized form of connective tissue.
During an inflammatory response to injury, which of the following is the least likely in the region of the injury?
cold, pale skin
The permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue is called
fibrosis.
Tissue changes with age include all of the following, except
proliferation of epidermal cells