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73 terms

pathophysiology glossary

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pathology
the study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death
Pathophysiology
The study of how disease affects body function
Health
Having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions
Disease
Being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions
Etiology
The study of the cause of a disease
Genetic
A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene.
Congenital
A disease, condition, or trait that is present at birth
Acquired
A disease, condition, or trait that developed because of being exposed to something during your life.
Idiopathic
Without a clearly identified cause.
Signs
Evidence of a disease that is objective and can be seen, measured, and recorded.
Symptoms
Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured, or recorded.
Pathogenesis
The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses.
Acute
A disease that develops and resolve rapidly.
Chronic
A disease that develops gradually and last 3 months or longer
Remission
The lessening in severity of the symptoms of disease.
Exacerbation
An increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms.
Local
A condition that is confined to one area.
Systemic
A condition that affects the entire body.
Endoscopy
A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body.
Radiodensity
The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation.
x-rays
A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures.
Contrast x-rays
x-rays that utilize a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids within the body, producing an image of the structures containing the fluid.
Ultrasound
A visual recording of differences in the rate of return & intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects within the body.
Electrocardiograms
A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system.
Electroencephalogram
A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often recording the cerebral cortex.
Spirometry
Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities of the respiratory system. Often referred to as PFT (Pulmonary function tests)
Chemotherapy
The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body. Two main types of chemotherapy are used=to kill cancer cells or microorganisms.
Pharmacological
The use of drugs to treat disease.
Palliative
Any form of treatment that relieves signs & symptoms without curing a disease. May include the use of medication (*such as decongestant or pain reliever), therapeutic massage, counseling, physical therapy, othotic devices.
Prognosis
A prediction of the likely outcome or consequences of having a disease.
Sequela
A consequence of a previous disease. (Example: Rheumatic heart disease sometimes occurs following a strep infection)
Complications
A morbid process or event ocurring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it amy result from it. (Example: Blindness is a complicaiton often associated with diabetes)
Terminal
Aisease likely to cause death.
Trauma
The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy may be mechanical, electical, radiation, or thermal
Deficiency
Lacking in something that is essentil. (Vitamin, glucose, protein, oxygen, water..)
Intoxication
Being exposed to a toxec level of something.
Hypertrophy
To increase in size
Atrophy
To decrease in size
Hyperplasia
An increase in the rate of mitosis and therefore cell number.
Metaplasia
A change in cell or tissue structure.
Dysplasia
Irregular cell or tissue structure. Often condsidered a potentially cancerous change.
Neoplasia
Growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. May be benign or maligment.
Inflammation
A protective response of tissue to injury or infection. Causes an increase in blood flow and pain in the affected region, as well as leukocytosis.
Pyrogens
Chemicals that cause a fever
Leukocytosis
An increase in the number of white blood cells to more than 10,000 per mm3. A WBC count of 15,000 -25,000 commonly occurs as a result of infection, inflammation or hemorrhage.
Exudate
The excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Contains a high level of proteins and neutrophils when compared to normal tissue fluid
Serous exudates
A thin, clear, watery fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation.
Purulent exudate
A thick, creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Also called pus.
Suppurative inflammation
A response to injury or infection that leads to the production of pus.
Regeneration
Replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition.
Repair
Replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue
Adhesions
The binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue.
Keloid Scarring
The over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue hat is often tender or painful.
Contracture
The shortening of scar tissue over time or the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes.
Stenosis
The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine, a blood vessel, of a heart valve.
Sclerosis
The process of hardening. Can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaques.
Necrosis
Tissue death
Prodromal stage
An early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetite an lack of energy. The time when a person feels as if they are "Coming down with something."
anaphylaxis
A severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstriction (resulting in severe difficulty in breathing).
Immunosurveillance
The immune system's constant search for an antigen
immunotolerance
The immune system's ability to recognize and not attack normally occurring tissues with the body.
incubation
The development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body unil the appearance of the first clinical signs and symptoms.
Acute stage
The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms egin to develop.
Benign
a nonmalignant neoplasm
Malignant
A cancerous neoplasm.
Angiogenesis
The development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries.
Tumor markers
Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person's blood.
Carcinoma
A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues.
Sarcoma
A mmalignancy that originates in connective tissues.
Glioma
A malignancy that originates within the tissue of the central nervous system.
Carcinogenesis
The process of developing a malignant neoplasm.
Initiators
Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogenes.
Promoters
Carcinogens that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes.