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consists of living factors- all the other organisms that are part of an individual's environment
the study of evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments
a group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area
the study of how members of a population interact with their environment, focusing on factors that influence population density and growth
the study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization
all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving factors with which they interact
the study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
abiotic factors of the biosphere
water, sunlight, temperature, wind, rocks and soil, periodic disturbances, and physiological responses
exponential growth model
the whole population multiplies by a constant factor during constant time intervals
logistic growth model
a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors
the number of individuals in a population that the environment can just maintain with no net increase or decrease
competition between individuals of the same species for a limited resource
a population-limiting factor whose effects intensity as the population increases in density
indicates high death rates for the very young and then a period when death rates are very low for survivors of a certain age
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