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30 terms

Ch. 18, 19, and 20 notecards

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ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
abiotic component
a nonliving component of an ecosystem, such as air, water, or temperature
biotic component
a living component of a biological community; an organism, or a factor pertaining to one or more organisms
organismal ecology
The branch of ecology concerned with the morphological, physiological, and behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their biotic and abiotic environments
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
population ecology
The study of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
community ecology
The study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
ecosystem ecology
The study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
biosphere
the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
habitats
places where animals or plants naturally live and grow
acclimation
adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
population density
number of individuals per unit area
mark-recapture method
A sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations.
dispersion pattern
the way individuals are spaced within their area
growth rate
the rate of increase in size per unit time
exponential growth model
a mathematical description of idealized, unregulated population growth
population-limiting factors
environmental factors that restrict population growth
logistic growth model
a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
intraspecific competition
in a community competition for resources among members of the same species
density-dependent factor
limiting factor that depends on population size
density-independent factor
limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size
age structure
proportion of people in different age groups in a population
life history
traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and death
life table
a table of data summarizing mortality in a population.
surviorship curve
plot numbers in a cohort still alive at each age
opportunistic life history
• Take immediate advantage of favorable conditions
• Typically exhibit a Type III survivorship curve
equilibrial life history
generally results in a type 1 survivorship cure (most organisms fall in between this and opportunistic life history)