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Cicero vs Verres

iugulō, iugulāre, iugulāvī, iugulātus

to cut the throat, kill, slay, murder
[figuratively] to destroy, overthrow
to choke off, confute, convict, silence

induō, induere, induī, indūtus

to put on, assume, dress in
to clothe, dress, cover, wrap, deck, array
to entangle, impale, pierce
[figuratively] to put on, assume
to entangle, involve

fīdūcia, fīdūciae

trust, confidence, reliance, assurance
self-confidence, boldness, courage, presumption
[in law] a deposit, pledge, security, pawn, mortgage

praesidium, praesidiī

defence, protection, guardianship, help, aid, assistance
a guard, escort, convoy, garrison
an occupied place, post, station, intrenchment, fortification, camp
aid, help, assistance


without punishment, unpunished, with impunity

īnfēstus, īnfēsta, īnfēstum

made unsafe, disturbed, molested, infested, unquiet, unsafe
that renders unsafe, hostile, inimical, troublesome, dangerous

dēficiō, dēficere, dēfēcī, dēfectus
de + facio
verb (3rd IO conjugation)

[intransitively] to withdraw, revolt, desert, fall off
of things, to be wanting, be absent, fail, cease, disappear, be lost, run out
[people] to fail, sink, faint, be insufficient, be missing
to fail, be bankrupt
[figuratively] to withdraw, depart, forsake, be parted, abandon, desert
to fail, be wanting, fall short

dēsertiō, dēsertiōnis

a forsaking, deserting


whatever time, whenever


chiefly, principally, eminently

attineō, attinēre, attinuī,

[transitively] to hold fast, detain, delay
[intransitively] to stretch, reach
[figuratively] to belong to, concern, relate to, be of consequence

īnstitūtum, īnstitūtī

a purpose, intention, design
a practice, custom, usage, habit
an institution, ordinance, decree, regulation
plur., principles, elements

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fīxus (defigo too)

to fix, fasten, drive, thrust in, attach, affix, post, erect, set up
to pierce through, transfix, pierce
[figuratively] to fix, fasten, direct, set
to sting, taunt, rally

perangustus, perangusta, perangustum

very narrow

fretum, fretī

a strait, sound, channel
the sea
[figuratively] a strait, narrow sea
a gulf, abyss

alumnus, alumnī

a foster-son, ward, nursling

facinus, facinoris

a deed, act, action, achievement
a bad deed, misdeed, outrage, villainy, crime
[plural] criminals, abandoned men

parricīdium, parricīdiī

the murder of a father, assassination of parents, parricide
the murder of a near kinsman
parricide, treason, horrible crime

rōstrum, rōstrī

a beak, bill, snout, muzzle, mouth
the curved end of a ship's prow, ship's beak
[plural] the Rostra, a platform for speakers in the Forum (adorned with the beaks of ships taken from the Antians B.C. 338)
a stage, orator's pulpit, platform

prōgredior, prōgredī, prōgressus sum

to come forth, go forth, go forward, go on, advance, proceed
[figuratively] to proceed, advance, go on, make progress

conqueror, conquerī, conquestus sum

to complain, bewail, lament, deplore

deplōrō, deplōrāre, deplōrāvī, deplōrātus

to weep bitterly, moan, wail, lament, complain
with acc, to bewail, lament, deplore
to give up for lost, abandon, resign

nauarchus, nauarchī



a little somewhat

coniūnctus, coniūncta, coniūnctum

[of places] adjoining, bordering upon, near, close
connected by marriage, married
united by relationship, associated, allied, kindred, intimate, friendly
[figuratively] connected, pertaining, accordant, agreeing, conformable

exīstimō, exīstimāre, exīstimāvī, exīstimātus

to value, estimate, reckon
to appreciate, value, esteem, judge, consider, suppose, think, expect

exoptō, exoptāre, exoptāvī, exoptātus

to greatly wish or desire


from the bottom, from the foundation
[figuratively] utterly, entirely, totally, completely

effigiō, effigiāre, effigiāvī, effigiātus

to form, to fashion

postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus

to ask, demand, claim, require, request, desire
to summon, arraign before a court, prosecute, accuse, impeach
[of price] to demand, ask
[of things] to make necessary, require, demand, call for


some several, a few, not many

cōntiō, cōntiōnis

a public assembly, meeting

ēscendō, ēscendere, ēscendī, ēnsus

to climb up, to ascend

prōvideō, prōvidēre, prōvīdī, prōvīsus

to see in advance, discern, descry


of time, until now, heretofore, hitherto, as yet


i. To throw together, unite, collect
[figuratively] to draw a conclusion, conclude, infer, conjecture, guess
[in augury] to prophesy, foretell, divine, interpret
iI. To throw, cast, urge, drive, hurl, thrust, put, place
[figuratively] to bring, direct, turn, throw, urge, drive, force
to throw, place, put, include

petītiō, petītiōnis

a blow, thrust, pass, attack, aim
hence, of oratorical fencing
a seeking, soliciting
a soliciting for office, application, solicitation, candidacy, canvass
[in law] a claim, suit, petition, complaint, declaration

prēnsō, prēnsāre, prēnsāvī, prēnsātus

to grasp, seize, catch, lay hold of
to take hold of, catch, hold, check, detain, stop
to sue for office, canvass

praeproperō, praeproperāre

to hasten greatly

prēnsātiō, prēnsātiōnis

a soliciting

prōficiō, prōficere, prōfēcī, prōfectus

to make headway, to make progress

percrēbrēscō, percrēbrēscere, percrēbruī,

to become more frequent, grow, prevelant, be spread abroad

rīdeō, rīdēre, rīsī, rīsus

to laugh

ingemō, ingemere, ingemuī,

to groan

feriō, ferīre

to smite, to hit (the forehead)

oppōnō, oppōnere, opposuī, oppositus

to set against, set before, place opposite, oppose
to set against pledge, wager, mortgage
to expose, lay bare, open, abandon
[figuratively] to set before, bring forward, present, oppose, adduce, allege
to say in opposition, object, reply, respond, adduce in answer, oppose. iis opposuit sese Socrates
to set against, place in comparison

inops, inopis

without resources, helpless, weak
without possessions, poor, destitute, needy, indigent
[figuratively] mean, wretched, contemptible, pitiful
[of speech] poor, meagre


except, besides

condūcō, condūcere, condūxī, condūctus

to draw, bring, lead together, to assemble, collect
Intens., to connect, unite
to hire, take on lease, to farm
To hire for one''s use, to hire, rent, employ

recidō, recidere, reccidī, recāsus

to fall back, spring back, return
[figuratively] to fall back, return, be thrown back, fall, sink, be reduced, relapse
to fall back, fall to, pass, be handed over
of evil, to fall back, be visited, recoil, return
to fall out, turn out, result, come

mūnus, mūneris

a service, office, post, employment, function, duty
a duty, burden, tribute
a service, favor, kindness
the last service, burial
a present, gift
a public show, spectacle, entertainment, exhibition, show of gladiators (given by magistrates)

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