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patent ductus arteriosus

the pulmonary artery and the aorta are connected with an opening

3 to 6 days

the time it takes after birth for PDA to close


major clinical manifestation of acyanotic heart conditions

atrial septal defect

opening between the two atria - the foramen ovale fails to close after birth

ventricular septal defect

opening between left and right ventricle

ventricular septal defect

a clinical manifestation of this is left to right shunting with right heart enlargement

coarctation of the aorta

localized narrowing of the lumen of the aorta


complication of coarctation of the aorta

upper extremity hypertension

this is a major clinical manifestation of coarctation of the aorta

aortic stenosis

narrowing of the aortic valve orifice due to congenital aortic abnormalities, usually a bicuspid valve


what needs to be given prophylactically to patients with aortic stenosis

pulmonic stenosis

narrowing of the pulmonic valve orifice due to congenital abnormalities

pulmonic stenosis

causes right ventricular hypertrophy

tricuspid atresia

improper development of the tricuspid valve, right ventricle is underdeveloped

VSD, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricle hypertrophy, overriding aorta

four major defects of tetrology of fallot

tet spells

acute episodes of cyanosis leading to irritability, blackouts, and convulsions

transposition of the great vessels

the two main arteries - the pulmonary artery and the aorta a switched

truncus arteriosus

main arterial trunk fails to separate in embryonic life to form the pulmonary artery and aorta

hypoplastic left heart syndrome

most structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped

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