Chapter 5 Creating the Constitution

Terms in this set (43)

Context: The Northwest Territory is the land north of Ohio River & West of Pennsylvania as far as the Mississippi River (today Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, part of Minnesota). By 1784, settlers started moving into the Northwest Territory, provoking war with Native Americans. The federal government could not risk another war as they did not have money. The government also feared that the settlers would turn to another power like the British or the Spanish and form their own states. One of the most important accomplishments of the National Congress was the creation of Plans for both governing and settling a vast territory that the government had NO AUTHORITY over.

Meaning: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided a government for the western territories based on Thomas Jefferson's ideas. It also provided a plan for how the Territories could become states.
- At first, Congress would appoint a territorial government led by a governor, secretary and 3 judges.
- Once a Territory had 5,000 men, they could establish an elected assembly, but the Governor could veto any laws.
- When a Territory had 60,000 men, the people could request admission into the Union as a State - equal to the original 13 states, provided that the new state adopted a republican constitution.

Significance:
- Thru this process, the Northwest Territories became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota.
- The Northwest Ordinance barred slavery. All of these new states became free states that upset the southern states that wanted to expand slavery.
- Congress discarded the British model of keeping colonies firmly under their rule. Congress wanted people to move to these territories and new that few Americans would settle in areas with few freedoms.
- The American expansion came at the expense of the 100,000 Indians living in the area. The Indians were expected to give up their land and move elsewhere.
Context: When the American Revolution ended, the Context: British decided to punish the Americans with the Navigation Acts, which meant that the Americans could only trade with the British Empire under rules that favored the British manufacturers. Americans could no longer freely trade with the British West Indies, the most important market for America's fish, lumber and grain. The slowdown in the trading of goods that resulted was increasing unemployment in the seaports and reducing the prices that farmers were getting for their products.

In 1785, the British suppliers attempted to collect on their debts from the American import merchants. These American merchants then had to collect from its debtors, many of whom were farmers and could not pay their debts. Farmers were being sued and risked losing their farms in court. In 1786, some farmers took up arms to shut down the local courts and stop the foreclosure of their farms. (not yet Shay's Rebellion)

Meaning: Shay's Rebellion was a 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms, resulting from high interest rates on debt and taxes. 1,000 farmers led by Daniel Shay seized arms from the Springfield Armory and again shut down courts and stopped foreclosure hearings.

Significance: The state raised an army and suppressed the rebellion. Massachusetts elected leaders said the republic wouldn't last because people keep violently interfering with courts. Other states tried to help debtors while others suspended lawsuits related to debt. The Shay Rebellion led some to believe that a stronger central government was needed.
Context: The Northwest Territory is the land north of Ohio River & West of Pennsylvania as far as the Mississippi River (today Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, part of Minnesota). By 1784, settlers started moving into the Northwest Territory, provoking war with Native Americans. The federal government could not risk another war as they did not have money. The government also feared that the settlers would turn to another power like the British or the Spanish and form their own states. One of the most important accomplishments of the National Congress was the creation of Plans for both governing and settling a vast territory that the government had NO AUTHORITY over.

Meaning: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided a government for the western territories based on Thomas Jefferson's ideas. It also provided a plan for how the Territories could become states.
- At first, Congress would appoint a territorial government led by a governor, secretary and 3 judges.
- Once a Territory had 5,000 men, they could establish an elected assembly, but the Governor could veto any laws.
- When a Territory had 60,000 men, the people could request admission into the Union as a State - equal to the original 13 states, provided that the new state adopted a republican constitution.

Significance:
- Thru this process, the Northwest Territories became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota.
- The Northwest Ordinance barred slavery. All of these new states became free states that upset the southern states that wanted to expand slavery.
- Congress discarded the British model of keeping colonies firmly under their rule. Congress wanted people to move to these territories and new that few Americans would settle in areas with few freedoms.
- The American expansion came at the expense of the 100,000 Indians living in the area. The Indians were expected to give up their land and move elsewhere.
Context: British decided to punish the Americans with the Navigation Acts, which meant that the Americans could only trade with the British Empire under rules that favored the British manufacturers. Americans could no longer freely trade with the British West Indies, the most important market for America's fish, lumber and grain. The slowdown in the trading of goods that resulted was increasing unemployment in the seaports and reducing the prices that farmers were getting for their products.

In 1785, the British suppliers attempted to collect on their debts from the American import merchants. These American merchants then had to collect from its debtors, many of whom were farmers and could not pay their debts. Farmers were being sued and risked losing their farms in court. In 1786, some farmers took up arms to shut down the local courts and stop the foreclosure of their farms. (not yet Shay's Rebellion)

Meaning: Shay's Rebellion was a 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms, resulting from high interest rates on debt and taxes. 1,000 farmers led by Daniel Shay seized arms from the Springfield Armory and again shut down courts and stopped foreclosure hearings.

Significance: The state raised an army and suppressed the rebellion. Massachusetts elected leaders said the republic wouldn't last because people keep violently interfering with courts. Other states tried to help debtors while others suspended lawsuits related to debt. The Shay Rebellion led some to believe that a stronger central government was needed.
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