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195 terms

Musculoskeletal System

Chapter 6
STUDY
PLAY
cephal/o
brain
ankyl/o
crooked or stiff
arthr/o, articul/o
joint (articulation)
brachi/o
arm
cervic/o
neck
chondr/o
cartilage
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull
dactyl/o
digit (finger or toe)
fasci/o
fascia (a band)
femor/o
femur
fibr/o
fiber
kyph/o
humpback
lei/o
smooth
lord/o
bent
lumb/o
loin (lower back)
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
my/o, myos/o, muscul/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
patell/o
knee cap
pelv/o, pelv/i
hip bone or pelvic cavity
radi/o
radius
rhabd/o
rod shaped or striated
sarc/o
flesh
scoli/o
twisted
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendon (to stretch) a band of fibrous tissue
thorac/o
chest
ton/o
tone or tension
uln/o
ulna
hinge
articulate
appendicular skeleton
bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton
bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of Osteocytes (bone cells) forming the skeleton
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the bones
red bone marrow
found in infants
yellow bone marrow
replaces red bone marrow in adults
articulation
a joint; the point where two bones come together
bursa
fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones
disk (disc)
a flat, plate between the vertebrae to reduce friction
nucleus pulposus
soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disc
ligament
a flexible band of fibrous tissue
synovial membrane
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid
lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
muscle
tissue composed of fibers that can contract
striated muscle
voluntary striated muscle attached to the skeleton
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle
muscle of the heart
origin of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
fascia
a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
coronal plane
vertical division of the body into anterior and posterior portions
sagittal plane
vertical division of the body into right and left portions
transverse plane
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) , ventral
front of the body
posterior (P), dorsal
back of body
anterior-posterior (AP)
from front to back
posterior-anterior (PA)
from back to front
superior, cephalic
toward the head
inferior, caudal
away from the head
proximal
toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal
away from the beginning
medial
midline- toward the middle
lateral
toward the side
axis
line that runs through the center
erect
normal standing position
decubitus
lying down, especially in bed
prone
lying face downward
recumbent
lying down
supine
flat on the back
flexion
bending at the joint
extension
straightening of a joint
abduction
move away from the body
adduction
move toward the body
rotation
circular movement
supination
turning upward or forward the palmer or plantar surface
pronation
turning downward or backward the palmar or plantar surface
dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or toes upward
planter flexion
curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM)
total motion possible in a joint
arthralgia
joint pain
atrophy
shrinking of muscle tissue
flaccid
flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy
increase in the size of tissue such as muscle
hypotonia
reduced muscle tone or tension
hypertonia
increased muscle tone
myalgia, myodynia
muscle pain
ostealgia, osteodynia
bone pain
rigor, rigidity
stiffness
spasm
drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle
spastic
uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
tetany
tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
tremor
shaking
ankylosis
stiff joint condition
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
osteoarthritis (OA)
most common form of arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints; characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
most crippling chronic, systemic inflammation
gouty arthritis
acute attacks in a single joint
bony necrosis sequestrum
dead bone tissue
bunion
swelling of the joint at the base of the toe
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel at the wrist
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
fracture (Fx)
broken or cracked bone
simple fracture
nondisplaced fracture involving one fracture line
complex fracture
a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
compound (open) fracture
broken bone with an open wound
comminuted fracture
broken in many little pieces
herniated disk
protrusion of intervertebral disk causing compression on the nerve
myoma
muscle tumor
osteomalacia
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium/ vit. D deficiency
rickets
osteomalacia in children
osteomyelitis
infection of bone marrow causing inflammation
osteoporosis
decreased bone density
kyphosis
humback- abnormal posterior curvature
lordosis
sway back- abnormal anterior curvature
scoliosis
S shape- abnormal lateral curvature
sprain
injury to a ligament
bone scan
radionuclide image of bone tissue
computed tomography (CT)
x-ray producing a series of cross-sectional images
amputation
partial or complete removal of a limb
arthrocentesis
puncture for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis
binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty
repair or reconstruct a joint
arthroscopy
procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
bone grafting
transplant of a piece of bone from one site to another
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
myoplasty
repair of muscle
open reduction, internal fixation of a fracture (ORIF)
internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment
osteoplasty
repair of bone
closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture with an external device,
casting
stiff solid dressing around a limb
splinting
use of a rigid device to immobilize a broken bone
traction (Tx)
application of a pulling force to a fractured bone
closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture
external manipulation - insertion of pins through skin
OA
osteoarthritis
ORIF
open reduction internal fixation
PT
physical therapy
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
ROM
range of motion
cervical
neck region (C1 to C7)
thoracic
chest region (T1 to T12)
lumbar
lower back region (L1-L5)
frontal bone
forehead
maxilla bone
upper jaw
mandible
lower jaw
coronal suture
across the top of the skull
pariental bone
middle back of skull
temporal bone
temple
occipital bone
base of the skull
cranium
top of the skull
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
Shoulder Blade
sternum
Breastbone
vertebral column
spinal column
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna
lower arm (pinky side)
radius
lower arm (thumb side)
carpals
wrist bones
metacarpals
between the wrist and fingers
phalanges
finger and toes
iliac crest
upper hip bone
ilium
upper pelvic bone
ischium
lower pelvic bone
sacrum
tail bone
coccyx
end of spine
tibia
shin bone
fibula
Calf Bone
tarsals
Ankle Bones
metatarsals
Foot Bones
calcaneus
heel bone
masseter
Jaw muscle
buccinator
cheek muscle
gluteus medius
muscle that drapes the hips
gluteus maximus
butt muscle
sternocleidomastoid
neck muscle that rotates head
trapezius
muscle that raises and rotates shoulder blades
deltoid
shoulder
latissimus dorsi
back
external oblique
Lower 8 ribs
rectus abdominis
Abs
pectoralis major
flexes, adducts, and rotates arm
internal oblique
flex vertebral column
tibialis anterior
flexes foot for walking
gastrocnemius
calf muscle
biceps brachii
flexes forearm
triceps brachii
extends forearm
sartorius
Flexes thigh on hip
vastus lateralis
extends knee
rectus femoris
Extends leg at knee
vastus medialis
Extends lower leg
vastus intermedius
extends leg
patella
Knee Cap
femur
thigh bone