45 terms

Ch. 8 Social Movements

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social movement
a loosely organized group that uses unconventional and often disruptive tactics to have their grievances heard by the public, the news media, and government leaders
WHAT ARE SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?
1) Are the political instrument of political outsiders
-help ppl who are outside the political mainstream gain hearing from the public/from political decision makers

2) Generally mass grassroots phenomena
-numbers, energy, commitment
-depend on large numbers of ordinary ppl to act in ways that will move the general public

3) Populated by individuals with a shared sense of grievance
-come together on shared opinions to fight the status quo

4) Use unconventional and disruptive tactics

5) Often turn into interest groups
-private organizations/voluntary associations that seek to advance interests by influencing what gov. does
secularization
the spread of nonreligious values and outlooks
MAJOR SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN THE US
1) The Abolitionists

2) The Populists

3) Women's Suffrage

4) The Labor Movement

5) Civil Rights Movement

6) Contemporary Antiwar Movements

7) The Women's Movement

8) The Environmental Movement

9) Gay/Lesbian Movements

10) Religious Conservatives

11) Antiglobalization Movement

12) Undocumented Immigrants Movement

13) Tea Party Movement

14) Occupy Wall Street Movement
The Abolitionists
- end slavery in the US
The Populists
- force public ownership/regulation of banks, grain storage companies, and railroads
Women's Suffrage
- women's right to vote
The Labor Movement
- protect jobs, ensure decent wages/benefits, guarantee safe workplaces
Civil Rights Movement
- committed to nonviolence civil disobedience, end of formal segregation in the South/discriminatory practices across the nation
Contemporary Antiwar Movements
- end wars (Vietnam, Iraq)
The Women's Movement
- civil rights protections for women, broaden participation of women in all aspects of American society (Equal Rights Amendment)
The Environmental Movement
- encourage gov. regulation of damaging environmental practices/raise environmental sympathies
The Gay and Lesbian Movements
- gain same civil rights protections under the law and respect from the public
Religious Conservatives
- infuse American society/public policies with their values
The Antiglobalization Movement
- involves people worried about effects of globalization
Undocumented Immigrants Movement
-wish to give legal status to those presently living and working in the US illegally, to allow more legal immigration from Mexico, to increase Americans' understanding of the positive role played by immigrants in American economy
Tea Party Movement
-April 15, 2009
-demonstrations in scores of locations around the country denouncing bank bailouts, Democrats' health care reform effort, rising gov. deficits, taxes/regulations, illegal immigration, legality of Obama presidency
Occupy Wall Street Movement
-organized through new social media
-alleged economic unfairness, asserting failure of gov to do anything about diminished job prospects, stagnant wages, crippling student loan debt, declining living standards, rising income/wealth inequality
-"We are the 99%"
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
proposed amendment to the US constitution stating that equality of rights shall not be abridged or denied on account of a person's gender
failed to win approval of the necessary number of states
Social Movements in a Majoritarian Democracy
1) Encouraging Participation
-instruments of the outsiders, increase involvement in politics
-dramatize range of issues that have been ignored/dealt with behind closed doors
-broaden scope of conflict

2) Overcoming Political Inequality
-allow individuals/groups w/o substantial resources to enter politics
-mass mobilization

3) Creating New Majorities
-Great Depression - changed opinion climate in nation, created bias for federal laws protecting right of working ppl to form labor unions

4) Overcoming Constitutional Limitations on Change
-takes energy/disruption of a social movement to overcome antimajoritarian aspects of our constitutional system
SCOPE OF CONFLICT
refers to the number of people involved in a political conflict
a narrow scope of conflict involves a small number of groups, a wide scope of conflict involves many
MASS MOBILIZATION
the process of involving large numbers of people in a social movement
-ability of those w/o resources to disrupt the status quo by mobilizing thousands to take the streets to voice their demands
Great Depression
The period of economic crisis in the US that lasted from the stock market crash of 1929 to America's entry into WWII
FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGE THE CREATION OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
1) Real/Perceived Distress
-people who feel they are threatened in anyway, use social movements as means to call attention
-caused by economic, social, and technological change
(Women's Movements, Religious Conservatives)

2) Availability of Resources for Mobilization
-have the resources sufficient to organize
(Civil Rights Movement, Tea Party Movement)

3) A Supportive Environment
-times must be right, tolerance must exist
-acceptance among elites
(Occupy Wallstreet movement)

4) A Sense of Political Efficacy Among Participants
-must believe actions can make a difference, their grievances will be heard and responded to
(Gay Rights Movement)

5) A Spark to Set Off the Flames
-dramatic precipitating event
-also known as a "catalyst" to set them in motion
(Civil Rights)
consciousness-raising groups
meetings of small groups of women designed to raise awareness of discrimination against women and to encourage involvement in movement activities
POLITICAL EFFICACY
the sense that an individual can affect what government does
-strong sense of common identity contributes to efficacy, knowing you aren't alone
TACTICS OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
-depend on dramatic gesture/often disruptive
1) Sit-down strikes
-invented by labor movements

2) Civil Disobedience
-Civil Rights Movement & Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
-Brown vs. Board of Education -end segregation in schools
-Birmingham, Alabama

3) Demonstrations
-Anti-War Movement
sit-down strike
a form of labor action in which workers stop production but do not leave their job site
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
intentionally breaking a law and accepting the consequences as a way to publicize the unjustness of the law
integration
policies encouraging the interaction between different races in schools or public facilities
Why are not all social movements equally successful?
1) Proximity of the movement's goals to American values
2) Movement's capacity to win public attention and support
3) Movement's ability to affect the political fortunes of elected leaders
LOW-IMPACT social movements
-Poor People's Movement 1960s
never able to mobilize large group of activists, unable to disrupt everyday life in a significant way/effect prospects of politicians
-Equal Rights Amendment failed to receive approval
REPRESSED social movements
-committed to radical change in society/economy tend to threaten widely shared values/interests of powerful individuals
-arouse hostility of political leaders
-Strike against Carnegie Steel in 1892
PARTIALLY SUCCESSFUL social movements
-have enough power/public support to generate favorable response from public officials but not enough to force them to go very far
-gov. responds half-heartedly
-Pro-life movement
SUCCESSFUL social movements
-have many supporters, win wide public sympathy, don't challenge basics of economic/social orders, wield clout in electoral arena, likely to achieve substantial number of their goals
-Women's Suffrage Movement, Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act
-can be successful without getting laws passed: increased respect, changes in fundamental values in society, increased representation of group in decision-making bodies
INTEREST GROUPS VS. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
INTEREST GROUPS
-are longer lasting and more organized with permanent employees and budgets, and more committed to conventional and non disruptive methods such as lobbying/issue advertising

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
-are more ephemeral in nature, coming and going as people feel they are needed, sometimes leaving their mark on public policies, sometimes not.
-They focus on broad, society-wide issues and their tendency to act outside the normal channels of gov and politics, using unconventional and often disruptive tactics.
-"contentious politics"
When are social movements most successful?
When their goals are consistent with the central values of society, have wide popular support, and fit the needs of political leaders.
In what ways do social movements positively affect our democracy?
-social movements play a valuable/important role by creating an additional linkage between portions of the American public and their government
1) Represent a way by which political outsiders and the politically powerless can become players in their gov.
2) Present a way for outsider groups/individuals to gain hearing for their grievances, work to win majority of fellow citizens, persuade elected leaders to take action
In what way do social movements negatively affect our democracy?
-push policies that run counter to democratic ideals of popular sovereignty, political equality, and political liberty
Social movements are
usually difficult to organize and sustain.
Which of the following is NOT a social movement?
National Abortion Rights Action League
The "Stonewall Rebellion" was the spark that ignited the ___ movement.
gay and lesbian
Which tactic would most likely be used by a social movement?
civil disobedience
In "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics," have the supporters of the Black Lives Matter movement agreed on tactics?
No, some Black Lives Matter supporters favor protests and other unconventional participation, while others have formed PACs and lobbied legislators.
Black Lives Matter Movement
Catalyst: shooting of young blacks
-no list of legislative priority
-has less of a defined shape/less structure
"Civil Rights Movement of the 20th Century"
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