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47 terms

Sociology 2

Reed weatherford college
STUDY
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Social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
Stanley Milgram study
'teacher' asked the question, 'student' was shocked when he got it wrong. the experimenter told the teacher to continue shocking the student even after he had completely stopped responding. 2/3 of the subjects obeyed, although they tried to quit. his predictions were totally off, but concluded that people can be coerced into doing things they wouldn't normally
deviance
behavior that departs from societal or group norms
stigma
an undesirable characteristic or label used to others to deny the deviant full social acceptance
anomie theory
The view that anomie results when socially defined goals (such as wealth and power) are universally mandated but access to legitimate means (such as education and job opportunities) is stratified by class and status.
labeling theory
emphasizes how a person comes to be labeled as deviant or to accept the label
cultural transmission theory
Deviance is part of a subculture; it is transmitted through socialization
William Chambliss study
study of two gangs based on age
Relative poverty
a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location
Absolute poverty
the absence of enough money to secure life's necessities
Sociological perspectives
There are three major sociological perspectives. The structural-functionalist perspective focuses on the way various parts of society are structured and interrrelated to maintain stability and order. The conflict perspective emphasizes how the various elements of society promote inequality and conflict among groups of people. Symbolic interactionism seeks to understand society and social structure through the interactions of people and the ways in which they subjectively define their worlds.
Conspicuous leisure
the demonstration of one's high social status through forms of leisure.
False consciousness
Acceptance of a system that works against one's own interests
Stratification
the act or process or arranging persons into classes or social strata
Social mobility
movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
World systems analysis
a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited
Globalization
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
Feminization of poverty
the trend toward more and more of the poor in the US being women and children
Life chances
the likelihood of securing the "good things in life" such as housing, education, good health, and food
Colonialism
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one
Modernization
the great number of social changes accompanying economic development
Developing
relating to societies in which capital needed to industrialize is in short supply
Multinational corporations
firms in highly industrialized societies with operating facilities throughout the world
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Ethic group
is a social category of people who share a common culture
Racial group
a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance
Cultural universals
general cultural traits thought to exist in all known cultures
Cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
Ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Assimilation
the integration of a social or ethnic minority into a society
Human rights
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Remittances
money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries
Ethnocentrism
the tendency to judge others in relation to one's own cultural standards
Prejudice
widely held preconceptions of a group (minority or majority) and its individual members
Discrimination
unequal treatment of individual based on their minority membership
Pluralism
based on the mutual respect between various cultural groups within a society
Stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
Minority group
a category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics
Institutional discrimination
discrimination that results from unfair practices that are part of the structure of society and have grown out of traditionally accepted behaviors
Glass ceiling
the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations
Segregation
separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Gender roles
culturally based expectations associated with each sex
Gender schema
a set of behaviors organized around how either a male or female should think and behave
Sexual harassment
the use of one's superior power in making unwelcome sexual advances
Sexism
a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality
Sex stratification
a process by which society creates unequal access to recourses based solely on the fact that people are either male or female. The basis for this inequality must strictly be the fact that the person is either male or female.
Gender identity
an awareness of being masculine or feminine based on culture