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DESROCHERS CH 20 Foner
Terms in this set (72)
Strikes of 1919
3000 strikes in 1919
management didnt want raises or unions
was not possible to strike and low wages during war
3 SIGNIFICANT STRIKES:
Boston police strikes
the Police Force in Boston, MA went on a strike
cost of living doubled.... need raise
President Coolidge = militia , fear of communism
falling farm prices
Overproduction of crops, new farm equipment, and new land caused a decline in demand, resulting in low prices
increase in manufacturing output between 1919 and 1929.
through Taylorism and the assembly line
increased use of oil and electricity
government policy pro big business
standard of living
no real increase in living standard or power over situation - always in fear of loss of job, barely keeping head above water
remove the requirement of union membership for employment
included gov't involvement
(making picketing illegal, refusing protection from violent strikebreaking... - )
union membership falls
paternalistic techniques employed by some bosses to improve working conditions to lead to a more stable workforce.
Ex: Henry Ford shortened workweek, raised wages, paid vacations, US Steel improved safety and sanitation
a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
Electricity in their homes enabled millions of American to purchase consumer appliances of the decade, such as refrigerators vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.
impact of the automobile
Had a huge effect on the American economy and the way Americans lived. It caused a growth of cities and suburbs, and workers no longer needed to live so close to their factories. It provided job oppurtunities and was a much more efficient way of transportation
29th president of the US; Republican; "Return to Normalcy" (life as it had been before WWI-peace, isolation); presidency was marred by scandal
Charles Evans Hughes
He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs
He was Secretery of the Interior during Harding's administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act
1922 and 1930, raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
(1923-1925) and (1925-1929), taciturn; small gov't conservative; laissez faire ideology; in favor of immigration restriction (Immigration Act); reduced the tax burden; Kellogg-Briand Pact
head of Justice Dep (FBI)
warned of May Day revolt
Hunted down & held suspected radicals: Communists, socialists, anarchists
(demo) ran against herbert hoover, hard working american
Catholic that lost the election because he attacked the loyalty of Catholics
1st catholic to run
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
"no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
feard of Third Communist International meeting (worldwide revolution and abolition of private property & free enterprise...or U.S ideas)
A period of general fear of communists
led by A. Mitchell Palmer
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 (or Immigration act)
limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910.
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Grew popular during and after WWI and available to all (even illiterate) so able to mobilize the masses for political purposes. Also used for propaganda
Early devices for playing recorded disks
Art and Entertainment
NBC (National Broadcasting Company) + CBS (Colombia Broadcasting System)
Self monitored stations
More diverse &
going the movies became a common past time for Americans
monitoring & "safe" viewing (Hays Code)
role of women
dependent on men in family
worked at home
flapper - modern women
Increase in women's organizations & political activity
ERA by Alice Paul
League of Women Voters
morals & fashion
understanding women and men to have the same impulses and desires, was fueled by intellectuals such as Sigmund Freud.
flappers - modern appearance of women
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Group of WW1 Veterans that were disillusioned by war when they returned home, and wrote of their experience.
Coined the term the "Lost Generation" during a conversation with Hemingway.
"All of you young people who served in the war. You are a lost generation... You have no respect for anything. You drink yourselves to death." Stein was good friends with many of the great writers + painters of the lost generation
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Great Gatsby - gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
The Lost Generation
Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms
Presented the isolation and loneliness of city life; expressed the hopelessness many felt during the Depression; Nighthawks
Roaring twenties realist painter. Made a lot of depressing paintings.
United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies (1898-1937)
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Celebration of African American culture through music, poetry, and writing. Key people - Langston Hughes, Claude Monet, Zora Neale Hurston
associated with generation of poets of the Harlem Renaissance
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music.
culture of Harlem
major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
African American blues singer who played and important role in the Harlem Reniassance.
African American concert singer whose passport was revoked and was blacklisted from the stage, screen, radio and television under the McCarran Act of the red scare of the 1950s due to his public criticism of American racist tendencies.
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Back to Africa movement
Encouraged those of African decent to return to Africa to their ancestors so that they could have their own empire because they were treated poorly in America.
Marcus Garvey advocated for a "back to Africa" movement
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups.
Aimee Semple McPherson
Fundamentalist radio evangelist, leader of revival and camp meeting movement
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
The work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
Illegal activity on a large scale, run like a business with an organizational structure
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits.
His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
=anti-Communist fears which fueled xenophobia
resulted in restrictions on immigration in the 1920s.
Saco & Vanzetti case
Two Italian immigrants that were accused of robbery and murder. They were anarchists. They were put on trial and found guilty; then, the two were sentenced to death.
bias and unfair. discrimination
Against Catholics, Jews, unions, saloons, birth control, evolution, gambling
women's & children's auxiliaries (valued)
The Birth of a Nation
100 percent Americanism
including divorce, sexual promiscuity & drunkenness as "sins" worthy of persecution
mandatory bible reading in school
community & purpose
fear of foreigners
Migration of African Americans to nothern cities increased racial tensions, which led to violence in many cities. Conditions were no better in the South than in the North.
Disarmament Washington Conference (1921)
1921 - president harding invited delegates from europe and japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect china's independence
Kellogg-Briand Treaty (1928)
1928-This Treaty renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends; almost all the nations of the world signed it. It proved ineffective because it 1) permitted defensive wars 2) failed to provide for taking action against the violators of the treaty. .
63 signatory nations agreed to talk out their differences rather than resort to war.
Did not outlaw wars in self-defense
did not s
Latin America policy
US removed military influnce here, but by doing so our economic impact skyrocketed. US investments in Latin America doubled between 1919-1929
National Origins Act 1924
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890.
Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care, a response to the lack of adequate medical care for women and children
During the war, the United States loaned huge amounts of funds to help with the war but the debts took too long to be paid back. Germany had a hard time paying back their debts.
Dawes Plan (1924)
Provided Germany with the $200 million loan designed to stabilize Currensy Germany then use this money to pay the allies which in turn would pay the US
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
painted american Gothic during depression
East St. Louis Riot
An outbreak of labor and racially motivated violence against blacks
East St. Louis, Illinois, located on the Mississippi River.
It was the worst incidence of labor-related violence in 20th century American history.
the owners angered the unions by allow blacks to work...
steel mill strike
workers in steel mills went on strike because they wanted shorter working hours, a living wage, union recognition, and collective bargaining rights, and their employers refused; strikebreakers were hired to break up the strike, and then the companies used propaganda to say that the strikers were Communists
coal mine strike
United Mine Workers demanded 20 percent wage increase (John L. Lewis)
Palmer get court order to put them back to work but refused...
got 27% increase eventually
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