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Learners of English as a foreign Language - Norm-dependent

In the Three-Circle Model of the spread of English the Expanding Circle refers to...

high levels of proficiency regardless of where one was born and how one learned the language

The concept of functional nativeness in English refers to...

Native speakers (US, OZ, UK etc.)

What's the inner circle of English?

People speaking English as a second language (India, Singapore, Nigeria etc.)

What's the outer circle of English?

English as a Native Language

What's ENL?

English as a Second Language

What's ESL?

English as a Foreign Language/Lingua Franca

What's EFL/ELF?

Probably an old colony, has official status or function, multilingual context.

What does it mean when English is spoken as a second language in a country?

about 350 million of each

How many ESL and ENL speakers are there?

1-4 billion

How many EFL speakers are there?

16th century

When did English begin its geographical expansion?

Migration from UK to US, SA, Australia and NZ.

What was the first dispersal of English?

Colonisation of Asia and Africa leading to second language-varieties

What was the second dispersal of English?

Population size greatly increased => growing sense of seperate identity. Independence from Britain => greater linguistic differences.

What major changes did the English-speaking settlements of the diasporas undergo between 1750-1900?

The outer circle

Which of the "circles" of English is seen as "norm-developing"?

The expanding circle

Which of the "circles" of English is seen as "norm-dependent"?

Gray areas between the circles, implies uniformity, implies central role of natives, does not define proficiency

What are the limitations of the circle model?

Because it is dependent on the situation and the function

Why is it difficult to define language proficiency?

Selection, Codification, Elaboration of function, Acceptance

What are the stages of standardization?

Grammar, vocabulary and orthography used by educated speakers. The most widely understood and promoted variety.

What is Standard English?

Accent, style, register, geography

What does Standard English NOT refer to?

Spelling, lexis (new words)

What is Standard English norms rigid about, and what "softer" about?

ESL varieties that have become indigenized - have new features of their own, some have gone through standardisation and are increasingly being spoken as a mother tongue

What are the "New Englishes"?

Whether language use differing from the standard is seen as an error or not

What is the difference between the deficit perspective and the difference perspective?

Because different setting and function leads to variation in form

Why has English been diversified so much?

When it develops a special role that is recognized in every country

What gives a language a genuinely global status?

Economic power

Military power might establish a language, but what maintains and expands it?

Cross-border activities, creation of transnational spaces, interdependence of societies and economies, compression of time and space

What are some of the characteristics of globalization?

Transportation, satelite technologies, communication technologies

How has technology influenced globalization?

No, because translation has limits (costs, availability)

Does translation take away the need for a lingua franca? Why/why not?

English language growing increasingly independent of Anglo-American origins

What made it possible for Globish to develop?

1500 word vocabulary, reduced grammar, correct spelling, correct pronunciation, accent irrelevant, neutral

What are some features of Globish?

80%, 56%

How much of the online content was in English in the late 90s? How much today?

Arabic, Russian, Chinese

What three languages show the larges increase in internet usage in the last decade?

Using English in addition to the native language

What does "pair-language" refer to?

Resistance - protection of local language and culture. Intelligibility.

What are possible problems with ads in English?

No preference

Given one slogan in the local language and one difficult-to-understand slogan in English, which one is generally preferred?

One of several working/official languages in many international organizations like UN, Red cross, FIFA

What is the role of French in diplomacy today?

Imbalance towards English, internet content not provided in all six languages. A cost problem.

What can you say about linguistic balance in the UN?


How many official languages does the EU have?

UN works intergovernmentally, EU has direct involvement of citizens

What's the reason for the differences in linguistic diversity between the UN and the EU?

English varieties with standardised vocabulary for maximum clarity. Only includes accepted conventions, short messages, checkbacks and confirmations

What's airspeak and seaspeak?

English for specific purposes: relating to a specific field such as business, technology and science. No line between ESP and general English.

What's ESP?

Before only children, now lifelong learning. New skills. Learning how to learn.

How has the attitude towards education shifted in recent times?

Start earlier = younger learners, adult teaching growing industry = older learners.

How is the English learning part of the population today different from how it was 10-20 years ago?

Unis traditionally national, now compete globally. UK and US academic superpowers

How has globalisation changed higher education?

cooperation, exchange, gaining globl recognition, greater exposure and availability, no need for translation

What are the advantages of EALF (English as an Academic Lingua Franca)?

Cultural hegemony, native speaker advantage, neglect of local research

What are the downsides of EALF?

Proofreaders, translators, native-speaker friends etc.

Who are the "brokers" of published academic texts?

National native varieties - AE or BE

What varities of English are accepted at international universities?

Not possible to define worldwide variety, not what learners want, lack of intelligibility

Mention some disadvantages of ELF.

NUmber of speakers, proportion within population, intergenerational transmission, native attitudes, domains and media, gov attitudes, documentation and materials

What are UNESCOS main criteria for defining language vitality/endangerment?

96 %

How big a percentage of the world population speak 4 % of the world's languages?

No one factor, but: physical danger of population, cultural assimilation, spread of English

Why do languages die?

Standard L1, non-standard L1, standard L2, non-standard L2

How's the traditional hierarchy of Englished built up?

Standard international English, standard local English, non-standard English

WHat's the reconceptualized hierarchy of Englishes like?

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