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Exposure Factors


a device used to measure the thickness of anatomic parts


the measurable difference between two adjacent densities


the degree of blackness on a radiograph

Exposure Time

the period of time during which x-rays are permitted to leave the x-ray tube

Inverse Square Law

the intensity of the radiation varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source


related to thousands of volts. Describes the electrical potential (differences) between the cathode and the anode; it is responsible for accelerating the electrons from the cathode to the anode and relates to the penetrating power the x-rays.

Kinetic energy

the energy related to motion

Milliamperage-seconds (mAs)

the number of x-rays produced over a given period. Calculated by multiplying the milliamperage by the time


one thousandth of an ampere. A measure of electron current to the filament, which has a direct relationship to the number of x-rays produced.

Sante's rule

a method of estimating kilovoltage in relation to area thickness (2x thickness) +40 = kVp

Source-image distance (SID)

formerly called focal-film distance (FFD) the distance between the source of x-rays and the image receptor or film

Thermionic emmission

the process of releasing electrons from their anatomic orbits by heat

ways to decrease the number of personnel in the radiology suite include

sedating patients

ways to increase penetrating power of x-rays include

increasing kVp

the milliamperage-seconds (mAs) for 1000 mA and 1/10 sec is

100 mAs

According to Sante's rule, if a cat's abdomen measures 12cm, kVp is


The source-image distance

must be considered each time the control panel is set

one percent of the energy produced at the anode is in the form of


The temperature of the filament within the cathode is controlled by

mA setting

Which is a characteristic of x-rays

their intensity increases as SID decreases

The potential difference between the anode and cathode is measured in


A higher kVp setting allows for a ________ mAs and ______exposure time

lower, lower

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