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Global History & Geography 1 (Grade 9/Freshman Review)

Terms in this set (38)

A) Egypt
1) Location: Northeastern Africa
2) Major River: Nile River
3) Characteristics and achievements:
a) Developed hieroglyphics- Writing using picture symbols.
b) Constructed pyramids- Massive structures used to bury Egyptian Pharaohs (kings).
B) Mesopotamia (Sumer)
1) Location: Middle East
2) Major Rivers: Tigris River and Euphrates River
3) Characteristics and achievements:
a) Developed cuneiform- Writing system using wedge-shaped symbols.
b) Code of Hammurabi- Oldest written set of laws in the world that is known for its
strict (harsh) punishments of crimes (i.e.- "an eye for an eye").
C) Harappan Civilization
1) Location: India
2) Major River: Indus River
3) Achievements: The urban (city) areas of Harappan civilization were organized and well-
4) NOTE: Early societies in India (and areas of Southeast Asia) were very affected by
seasonal monsoons- Winds that brought rain needed to farm (but too much rain caused
dangerous flooding).
D) China
1) Major Rivers- Yellow (Huang He) River and Yangtze River
2) Early Chinese societies were very isolated from other civilizations because China is
surrounded by natural boundaries (i.e.- mountains and deserts).
E) Common Features- Many ancient societies had important traits in common:
1) They existed in river valley regions.
2) They were all polytheistic- People believed in many gods associated with nature (i.e.- Sun
God, Rain God, Wind God, etc).
3) They often had traditional economic systems with the following characteristics:
a) Barter- Trade without using money.
b) Subsistence agriculture- Farming in which the crops are used only to feed the
farmer and his family. Food is not usually sold for a profit.
c) People have the same occupation (job) as their parents (usually related to
I. Geography
A) Japan is located in East Asia and is considered to be an archipelago- A country that consists of a
group of islands (Japan is made up of 4 main islands)
B) Japan has a long and irregular (unsmooth/rough) coastline
C) Japan is made up mostly of mountains, which has made farming difficult.
1) Terrace Farming- In order to farm in the mountains, the Japanese had to dig and carve
flat areas (called terraces) into the sides of mountains. NOTE: The Inca of Peru (in
South America) used the same technique.
II. Religion
A) Shinto is the religion of Japan. It is a religion (similar to Animism in Africa) that believes all
living and non-living things in nature (such as trees, mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a
B) Later in Japan's history, Buddhism became popular as well. Today, most Japanese practice both
Shinto and Buddhism.
III. Influence of China on Japan
A) Cultural Diffusion- Early Japan was GREATLY influenced by contact with the neighboring Asian
civilization of China. Through contact with China, Japan received many important things:
1) Writing- Japan's first form of writing was influenced by Chinese writing.
2) Buddhism- The Japanese learned about the Buddhist religion from the Chinese.
3) Tea- The Japanese first learned how to cultivate (grow) tea from the Chinese.
IV. Japanese Feudalism
A) Similar to Europe during the Middle Ages, Japan developed a system of feudalism early in its
history. The feudal system worked like this:
1) Emperor and Shogun (military general)- They were the rulers of Japan.
2) Daimyo- They were the wealthy nobles who were given land by the emperor and Shogun
in return for loyalty and military service.
3) Samurai- They were the warriors of Japanese society. They pledged loyalty to the
Daimyo and had to fight when necessary. The samurai had a code of behavior called
Bushido (which required the samurai to be loyal to the Daimyo and to fight bravely in
B) NOTE: Japanese feudalism was very similar to European feudalism:
1) Japanese samurai and European knights both followed a code of behavior. Bushido was
the code of the Samurai and Chivalry was the code of the knights. Both codes
emphasized loyalty and bravery.
2) Japanese and European feudalism were both decentralized, which means that power was
given to many different local leaders instead of being concentrated in the hands of a
single ruler.
3) Because people in each society had a clear role to follow, feudalism brought structure,
order, and stability (calmness) to society.
I. Introduction to Africa
A) Geography
1) Africa has a very diverse (varied) geography that includes deserts (i.e.- the Sahara
Desert), savanna (grasslands), and rainforests.
2) Due to its many geographic features, Africa is a very diverse continent with many
different cultures. No two societies are alike.
3) NOTE: Africa is currently having problems with desertification (the spreading of desert
lands). The Sahara continues to grow, which reduces the amount of available farmland.
B) Religion
1) Animism is the traditional religion that is native to (began in) Africa. It is a religion
(similar to
Shinto in Japan) that believes all living and non-living things in nature (such as trees,
mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a spirit.
C) Bantu Migrations (500 BC- 1500 AD)
1) This is one of the largest migrations (movements) of people in history.
2) Due to a shortage of land, the Bantu People scattered throughout southern Africa over the
course of 2,000 years.
3) Major effects (results) of the migration- As the Bantu people moved, they spread 3 things:
a) The Bantu language
b) Iron technology
c) Agricultural (farming) techniques
II. West African Civilizations (300-1400s)
A) Three of Africa's greatest civilizations all developed in West Africa. They are:
1) Ghana
2) Mali
3) Songhai
B) Mansa Musa- He was the most famous ruler of Mali. He is important for several reasons:
1) He was a devoted Muslim who helped spread Islam in West Africa.
2) He made a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
3) He turned the city of Timbuktu into a center of trade and Islamic learning.
C) NOTE: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai all grew very wealthy for the same reason: They were located
along the Trans-Saharan trade routes and participated in the Gold-Salt trade (i.e.- they
traded their gold for the salt that they needed to survive).
I. The Mongols (1100s-1400s)
A) Introduction

1) The Mongol people originated on the steppes (grassy plains) of Central Asia.

2) The Mongols lived in a harsh physical environment and survived as nomadic pastoralists-
They raised animals and migrated frequently in search of grazing lands for their animals.

B) Empire
1) Under the skilled military leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols conquered so much
land that they established the LARGEST EMPIRE in all of history.

2) At its height, the Mongol empire included China, Central Asia, Russia, and much of the
Middle East

C) Marco Polo

1) Marco Polo was an Italian merchant who visited the Mongols in China and remained
there for almost 20 years.

2) After returning to Italy, Marco wrote down extensive information about his experiences
in China with the Mongols.

3) NOTE: The writings of Marco Polo are important for several reasons:
a) They are valuable primary sources that teach us about China during this period.
b) They increased the desire of Europeans to trade with China to obtain valuable
D) The Mongols are important for several reasons:

1) Trade and travel between Europe and Asia increased TREMENDOUSLY during Mongol
rule since the Mongols kept peace and prevented violence along trade routes (like the Silk

2) Influence on Russia
a) After they conquered Russia, the Mongols kept Russia isolated (removed) from
developments that were taking place in Western Europe.
b) The Mongols taught the Russians how to have a centralized government- A
strong government with one ruler in firm control.

3) The Mongols were the first foreign group to completely conquer China.

4) The Mongols developed a tribute system- Areas taken over by the Mongols were required
to give the Mongols money each year.
I. The Black Death (1347-1351)
A) The Black Death refers to the major disease (called bubonic plague) that killed 25 million people
in Europe (almost 1/3 of the population) during the late Middle Ages.
C) The disease started in East Asia (maybe China) and spread to Europe over trade routes such as
the Silk Road. The interaction of different groups of people helped spread the disease.
C) Major effects (results) of the Black Death:
1) Depopulation- The population of Europe decreased from 85 million to 60 million.
2) Feudalism continued to decline as serfs fled from manors for better opportunities.
3) Trade temporarily decreased.
II. The Renaissance (1400-1600)
A) The Renaissance was the Golden Age of Western Europe. The Renaissance had the following
1) Like all Golden Ages, there were amazing achievements in the arts, literature, and
2) Renaissance scholars studied art and books from ancient Greece and Rome.
3) Humanism- There was a focus on humans and life on earth instead of on God and
B) The Renaissance began in Italy because:
1) The Italian city-states (like Venice and Florence) had great economies. These areas
controlled Mediterranean trade and grew very wealthy. Much of this wealth was used to
support artists.
C) Famous artists of the Renaissance include Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and
D) Niccolo Machiavelli- Famous author of the Renaissance who wrote a book called "The Prince,"
which is a guide for government leaders. Key ideas of this book include:
1) Rulers must have absolute power and do whatever is necessary to stay in power (even if
that means dishonest and cruel behavior).
2) "The end justifies the means"- Leaders must do whatever is necessary to help their

III. The Protestant Reformation (1500s)
A) The Protestant Reformation was the religious revolution that challenged the Catholic Church
and led to the further division of Christianity.
B) Causes of (reasons for) the Protestant Reformation:
1) Europeans were angry that the Catholic Church was too concerned with worldly issues
(i.e.- money and power).
2) Europeans were angry about indulgences- Reductions in punishment that were sold by
the Catholic Church.
C) Key leaders of the Protestant Reformation:
1) Martin Luther- German monk who created the 95 Thesis, which were 95 arguments
against the sale of indulgences.
2) Henry VIII- King of England who separated from the Catholic Church because he wanted
a divorce from his wife and the Catholic Church would not allow it.
3) John Calvin- Swiss reformer who believed in predestination, which is the idea that God
already knows who will be punished and who will be saved (i.e.- sent to Heaven).
D) Effects (results) of the Protestant Reformation:
1) The power of the Catholic Church (and the Pope) decreased.
2) The power of monarchs (kings) increased since they gained power over religion.
3) Religious unity in Europe came to an end- Before the Protestant Reformation, almost
everyone in Western Europe was Catholic. Now there were large numbers of Protestants
IV. The Printing Press
A) Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
B) The printing press was important for several reasons:
1) It helped spread new ideas quickly.
2) It helped spread the Protestant Reformation since people like Martin Luther were able to
copies of their writings for others to read.
3) It increased literacy (the ability of people to read and write) since books were now easier
cheaper to obtain.
I. Pre-Columbian Civilizations (c. 300-1500s AD)
A) Introduction
1) The pre-Columbian civilizations are the societies that developed in the Americas before the
arrival of the Europeans.
2) The 3 main pre-Columbian societies were the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca. They were all
very organized, developed, and advanced civilizations.
B) The Maya
1) They lived in the lowland region of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America).
2) Achievements:
a) They developed a calendar and a form of writing.
b) Math- They invented the use of zero in math (like the Gupta of India).
C) The Aztec
1) They lived in Mesoamerica (Mexico) and established a large empire.
2) Tenochtitlan- Capital city of the Aztec Empire.
3) Achievements:
a) They used a calendar and a form of writing.
b) Chinampas- These were "floating gardens" that the Aztecs built in lakes in order to
farm since there was a shortage of fertile land.

D) The Inca
1) They lived in the Andes Mountains of Peru (in South America) and established a large
2) Machu Picchu- Most famous site of the Inca.
3) Achievements:
a) NOTE: In order to improve trade and transportation, the Inca developed a vast
(large network of roads (like the Romans) and footbridges in the Andes
b) Terrace Farming- Since the Inca lived in the mountains, they learned to farm by
cutting flat areas (called terraces) into the sides of mountains. NOTE: The Japanese
used a similar technique in order to farm.
E) NOTE: The Regents wants you to know that both the Aztecs and the Inca used creative
agricultural techniques (chinampas and terrace farming) in order to adapt to their geographic
F) The Aztecs and the Inca were both conquered by the Spanish when they arrived in the 1500s:
1) The Aztecs- Conquered by Hernan Cortez in 1521.
2) The Inca- Conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1532.
I. Introduction
A) The Age of Exploration and Encounter was the period in history when the Europeans began sea
voyages of exploration. During this period, Europeans reached the Americas and began to
colonize (take over) areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

B) The two European countries that first began voyages of exploration were Spain and Portugal.
II. The Age of Exploration and Discovery (1400s-1600s)
A) Causes of (reasons for) the Age of Exploration:
1) Europeans wanted greater access to the spices and other products of Asia.
2) Europeans wanted to find sea routes to Asia since land routes were controlled by Muslims.
3) Improvements in navigational (sailing) technology made long sea voyages possible. These
improvements include the compass and astrolabe, cartography (the science of making
maps), and the lateen sail for ships.

B) Key Explorers include:
1) Bartholomeu Dias- First explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa).
2) Vasco da Gama- First explorer to reach India by going around Cape of Good Hope.
3) Christopher Columbus- First explorer to reach the Americas.
4) Ferdinand Magellan- First explorer to circumnavigate (sail around) the globe.
C) Effects (results) of the Age of Exploration:
1) The Americas
a) The Spanish and Portuguese colonized (took over) land in the Americas. Lands
controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese were called colonies.
b) Encomienda System- A labor system in which the Native Americans were forced to
work on Spanish farming plantations (growing sugar) and in Spanish mines (getting
gold and silver). Spanish landowners had total control over the Native Americans.
c) Millions of Native Americans died due to the diseases (such as smallpox) brought
over by the Europeans.

2) Africa
a) Europeans took slaves from Africa to the Americas to work on farming plantations.
b) The voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas was called the Middle Passage.

3) Mercantilism
a) Mercantilism is the idea that colonies exist only to make the Mother Country (i.e.-
Spain and Portugal) wealthy.
b) Spain and Portugal tightly controlled trade with their colonies in the Americas in
order to make money. Europeans would take raw materials (like cotton) from their
American colonies and sell finished products (like clothing) back to the colonies.

4) Triangular Trade- This was the trade route taken by Europeans in the Atlantic Ocean.
Europeans traveled to Africa to get slaves, brought the slaves to their colonies in the
Americas, and then returned to Europe with goods from the Americas.

5) Columbian Exchange- This is the term used to describe the exchange of people, plants,
animals, ideas and technology between the "Old World" (Europe) and the "New World"
(North and South America) that took place as a result of exploration and colonization.
a) Items sent from Europe to the Americas include: Wheat, sugar, bananas, horses,
chickens and diseases (like smallpox and measles).
b) Items sent from the Americas to Europe include: Maize (corn), potatoes, beans,
squash, chili peppers, cocoa, and tobacco.
c) The Columbian Exchange is the ultimate example of cultural diffusion (the
exchange of goods and ideas between civilizations).

III. Commercial Revolution (1500s-1600s)
A) The term Commercial Revolution refers to the new forms of business that were introduced
during the Age of Exploration. These new forms of business included:
1) Joint-stock companies- Investors would combine money to help pay for trading projects.
2) The expansion (growth) of banking.
3) Capitalism- Form of business in which profits from one project are reinvested in other
projects in order to make more money.