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chapter 7

social stratification

the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources

life chances

Max Weber's term for the extent to wich individuas of have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care

social mobility

the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratificaion system to another

intergenerational mobility

the social movement (upward or downward) of individuals within their own lifetime


an extreme from of stratification in wich some people are owned by others

caste system

a system of social inequality in wih people's status is permanently determined at burth based on their parents' ascribed characteristics

class system

a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do

capitalist class

(bourgeoisie) Karl Marx's term for the class that consissts of those who own and control the means of production

working class

(proletariat) those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive


a feeling of powerlessness and estragement from other people and from oneself

class conflict

Karl Marx's term for the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class


the respect or regard with wich a person or status position is regarded by others

socioeconomic status(SES)

a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education


those who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment

official poverty line

the federal income standard that is based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living att a subsistence level

relative poverty

a level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life

feminization of peverty

the trend in wich women are dis proportionatley represented among individuals living in poverty


a hierarchy in wich all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials

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