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64 terms

Astronomy Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Asteroid
Mars and Jupiter- Belt- Rocks
Trojan
Jupiters family of asteroids
Earth Crossers
Apollo class can hit NEO- Near earth objects
Oort's Cloud
spherical cloud surrounding solar system 50000 AU
Kuiper's Belt
Outside Neptune- leftover planetismals
Meteroid
Small piece in space
Meteor
burning up in out atemosphere
Meteroite
Rock on the ground
Photosphere
part of the sun we see about 500 miles thick - 5800K
Chromo sphere
pink-- 10000 miles above photosphere- 15000K
Corona and Holes
outer atm and 1,000,000K+-- areas which have no corona are called holes
Luminosity
how much energy sun gives off - we use sun as standard unit of 1 solar lum
Convection Zone
area just below surface that energy moves and undulates sun surface
Radiation Zone
area around core of sun that moves the energy
Core
15,000,000K dense and all fusion takes place here
Helio Seismology
study of convection undulations below surface
Granualtion
salt and pepper texture on surface due to convection
Sunspots
Magnetic storms cooler by 2000K on suns surface
Cycle
11 years if you look at numbers and 22 years if you look at total polarity switch
Prominences
loops of gasses that connect paired sunspots
Flares
hot storms that last 5 to 20 minutes 5 million degrees sends out a lot of x rays and solar radiation
Fusion
combining hydrogen into helium which releases energy only in core
p-p reaction
reaction that takes place in suns core- 4 hydrogen to 1 helium
E=mc2
E= enegry m= mass c= speed of light
Neutrinos
essentially mass less particles that are created at sunds core and may let us study the core
Parsec
parallax of one arc sec- 3.26 light years
Proper Motion
amouth stars moves across the sky- most are to far away to see proper motion
Apparent Brightness
Brightness of star in night sky
Magnitude Scale
each magnitude number changes by 2.5 times up of down
Absolute Mag
How bright star would appear at 10 parsecs
Mass-Luminosity
the more massive the star the brighter it is
Radius-luminosity-temperature relationship
to truly know the brightness of star you need to know size and temp
Visual Binaries
can see the two stars and used to get masses
Spectroscopic Binaries
cannot see the companions but spectrum tells them they are there
Spectroscopic Parallax
uses HR diagram to measure distance to stars
Eclipsing Binaries
two stars the block each others light-- east to measure masses of stars
Main sequence turnoff point
star leaves main sequence as it gets old
Molecular Clouds
large cool gas cloud that have many material and dust- star formation
Protostar
forming star
Jets
gasses ejected as star forms
Thermal vs Degenerate Pressure
thermal- out
degenerate- stops collapse inward
Brown Dwarfs
failed stars
Hydrogen Shell Burning
olders stars having fusion moved out from core
Helium fusion-flash
star trying new fuel in flash
White dwarf and planetary nebula
sun dies are core called white dwarf surrounded by planetary nebula
CNO cycle
more massive stars than sun use this
Iron Stage
last fuel most massive stars can use
Supernova
huge explosion - type 1 binary star dearth type II one large star explosion
Neutron Star
1.4 to 6 solar mass-- 10 mile collapsed core of neutrons
Electron Degeneracy
That which stops white dwarf from collapsing any further
White Dwarf
.1 to 1.4 sollar masses - sun ends up this 10000 miles across- earth size
White dwarf limit
.1 to 1.4
Accretion Disk
material falling in 10 percent energy production
Nova
Binary star explosion- periodic
White Dwarf Supernova
binary stars collaps on each other - type 1
Massive star Supernova explosion
type II one large star explosion
Neutron Stars
1.4 to 6 solar masses-- 10 mile collapsed core of neutrons
Neutron Degeneracy
stops further collapse
Pulsars
rotating neutron star
Black Hole
light cannon escape- 6 solar masses and above
Schwarz Child Radius
the size of a black holes event horizon
Event Horizon
once you cross you cannot return
Signularity
mass but no size
Gamma Ray Bursts
matter falling into black holes giving large explosions to gammas