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sociology 1000 2nd exam mizzou (brent)
Terms in this set (76)
Charles Horton Cooley
- symbolic Interactionist Perspective
- Argued that kids develop a sense of self through 3 steps
Cooleys three steps
1. Imagine they imagine how other people see them.
2. They intercept the reactions of other to them.
3. They Develop a feeling about themselves.
George Herbert Mead
- originally called his view social behaviorism now we call it Symbolic Interactionism.
- 4 sage development process for childhood socialization.
Mead's 4 stages
1. Preparatory stage
2. Play stage
3. Game stage
4. Adult Stage
the norms and values of the society that provide the standards fro evaluating individual behavior.
- Psychosexual Development
- founded the field of psychoanalysis
is rational (realistic part of persons personality)
represents the values and norms of the broader society insofar as the individual
- theory of cognitive development
Theory of cognitive development
Jean Piaget argued that young children go through four distinct stages in their ability to reason and perceive.
- Moral development
-presented students with fictitious stories illustrating moral dilemmas to see how they could reason in specific circumstances
- development over the life course
- identified eight stages of development over the life cycle
Erikson 8 stages
- first five are based on Freud's stages
-argues that kids develop trust during the oral stage
-autonomy during the anal stage
-initiative during the phallic stage
-industry during the latency stage
-identity during adolescence
-Stages: Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, and Late Adulthood.
The Functional View: Inheriting Culture
-views socialization as one of the primary means by which culture including knowledge is passed form one generation to the next
- multiple socialization experiences may facilitate social change.
The Conflict view : Passing on Advantage
- rich and powerful pass on their advantages to their children.
- justify and reproduce the status quo
- parents use their economic capital to help their kids
-parents use their social capital- confidence to help their children do well in school
socialization for a status that occurs before the person occupies the statues.
socialization occurring in settings intentionally designed for socialization.
socialization in which peers and more experienced members train newcomers as they carry out their roles
a process of unlearning old norms, roles, and values then learning new ones required by the new social environment
a process of socialization in which kids of the rich are prepared for and directed towards of a privileged in society while the opposite for the poor.
the process by which a person learns and comes to accept the established ways of particular social group or society
Agents of socialization
Family, peers, schools, and mass media; each having a greater impact at different stages of life.
the interactions between genders that tends to strengthen and perpetuate gender boundaries
a ritual in which someone experiences negative, often extremely embarrassing events on the presence of others
activities that merge entertainment with educational experiences
Rights of Passage
ceremonies marking important transitions in life such as the passage form being single to being married
consists of the process through which people affect one another through actions, interpretations of actions, and responses to actions
consist of common knowledge or background assumptions which people have and which make it possible for them to interact effectively with one another.
describes social interactions in which one participant can win only of the other participants lose and whatever benefits in the winner yes become losses for the others so there is not net positive net benefit of the interaction.
occurs when one person or group forces its will on another, based on the threat of physical force or violence
-introduced by Mead, Cooley and Thomas
Blumer Defining Characteristic
social interaction among people is that "human beings interpret of define each other's actions ins tread of merely reacting to each others actions.
The Social Construction of Reality
is the process by which people define reality, influenced by interactions with others as well as their own life experiences and assumptions.
"situations we define as real are real in their consequences" (people act as though what they believe is true and it has a real consequences for them whether is is objectively true or not)
Defining the Situation
refers to the social process through which statuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified
is a social structure determined by the interactions through which people come to a shared definition of the situation providing meaning for actions (negation- some agreement)
as assumption, once having been made, leads to the predicted event occurring
views life the metaphor of actors playing roles on stage, much of human behavior can be understood as attempt to manage the impressions other people have of us.
to refer strategies people use to a convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people
Front stage setting
refers to occasions or encounters in which people are in the presence of others whom they would to impress favorably
Back stage setting
refers to times and places when the people a person wishes to impress are not present
is a type of work activity requiring the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service.
Social exchange theory
-analyzes social interaction in terms of called outcomes to the participants (Homan Blau)
- assumes people are motivated by self- interest
The norm of reciprocity
assert that if you give someone, you expect him or her to give you something of equal value in return (Gouldner)
Is a socially recognized position in a social system
is a status in which people are assigned without regard for their actions, desires, or abilities (male,black old)
is a social status acquired through an individuals owns actions
is the status that defines or structure the role set for a particular situation
is any status formally defended as irrelevant to a situation and which should have no bearing on interaction
is a process in which a person disengages a role that is central to their identity and establishes a new alternative role
refers to the structure of social inequality in a society.
is a set of expectations for anyone occupying a particular social status
is the set of all roles associated with a particular social status
is the set of roles performed by members of a group, organization, or collectivity
consists of actions by an individual occupying a social status that are based on the role the person is playing and the role the person with whom they are interacting
refers to the discomfort or difficulty on the part of an individual due to the difficulty of meeting the conflicting expectations of a single role
when different roles have incompatible expirations for the individual holding both if those roles
refers to attempts to avoid occupying statuses requiring individuals to be partners for more then one role we are practicing
a separation of ones self from the role one must play
term used to indicate a formal organization that attempts to maximize efficiency and productivity
Division of labor
-negative: narrow perspective
-positive: clarifies decision making
-negative: employees have no voice in decisions, encourages decision avoidance
-negative: may promote people beyond their level of competence (the peter principle)
-positive: reduces nias
-negative: worker alienation and reduced loyalty to company
Written rules and regulations
-positive: workers know what is expected
-negative: stifles initiative, encourages ritualism and goal displacement
is a series of social relationship linking individuals directly to other individuals and indirectly to still other individuals
localized, kin-based cooperative coalitions of people based on strong ties (carol stack)
the structure of social networks
who can communicate directly with whom- influences the power of individuals as well as the effectiveness of the entire organization
refers to the social process characterizing groups and the social structures that develop characterizing relationships among people within groups
a relatively small number of people who interact with on another over time, establishing patterns of interaction, a group identity, and rules or norms governing behavior
small, close knit and personal
large and impersonal
any group a person considers when evaluating his or her actions or characteristics
a group in which members are involved in and in which they identify with
a group in which people feel like they don't belong
is an ordered set of relationships among social actors having shared meaning
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