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144 terms

final study guide

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cell
basic unit of structure and function
protoplasm
colorless, jelly like substance that contains food elements like protein, fats, carbs and minerla salts
except protoplasm
principle part of a celll
differentiation
repeated division of the ovum during early development that renders specialized cells unique
anabolism
metabolic process of buliding larger molecules from smaller ones
ectoderm
layer of embrionic cells that form the glands of the skin, liining of mouth, anal canal, and nervous system
perichondrium
membrane covering cartilage
adipose tissue
areolar tissue w/ alot of fat cells is
coronal
body front to back
cranial
cavity that the brain is in
stratum germinativum
deepest layer in epidermis
acidic
healthy skin is moist, soft and slightly.....
sudoriferous
glands that respond to elevated body temp resulting from environmental conditions or physical activity
arrector pili
goose bumps
wheal
insect bite, that dont last long
rosacea
oily skin and chronic inflammation of cheek and nose
basal cell carcinoma
least malignant and most common skin cancer
contact dermatitis
abnormal skin rash from chemicals
long bones
include bones of legs, fingers and toes
compact bone tissue
forms the hard bone in the shafts of the long bones and formed outside flat bones
spongy bone
inside long bones, its irregularly shaped spaces are defined by thin, bony plates
thoracic cage
consists of the ribs and sternum
patella
kneecap
synarthrotic joints
basicly immovable
tenovial
not in a class of joints
ball and socket
greatest range of motion
osteoarthritis
chronic disease of aging
600
number of muscles
smooth
muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
sarcoplasmic reticulum
network of membranous channels in the muscle cells that realease calcium ions, causing muscle contractions
irritability
capacity of muscle to receive and react to stimuli
aerobic cellular respiration
occurs in cells mitochindria
type 2
chicken is made of this type of muscle fibers
insertion of a
muscle is the more mobile attachment of a muscle to bone
synergists
muscles that help the prime mover are called
hypertrophy
enlargement of muscle breadth by repeated forceful muscle activity
heart enclosed in 2 layer membrane
pericardium
bicuspid valve
aka-mitral valve; located between the left atrium and left ventricle, allows blood to flow from left artium to left ventrcle
capillaries
smallest blood vessels
vasodilation
relaxation and enlargement of the arterial walls
hematoma
bleeding under skin, sometimes deep in body tissues
50-60%
percentage of plasma in the blood
leukocytes
white corpuscles that protect the body from disease and infection
seratonin
is a vasoconstrictor that causes a vascular spasm that temporarily closed a blood vessel
aplastic
anemia occurs when bone marrow stops production of blood cells
afferent/sensory nerves
carry impulses toward the spinal cord and brain
dura mater
outer layer of meningies, fibrous connective tissue sheath covering the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum
part of the brain stem-except
autonomic nervous system
regulates action of glands, smooth muscles and heart
sacral plexus
spinal nerves, merges to form several collateral nerves and one maim branch, the sciatic nerve
nociceptors
dectect pain in every tissue but the brain
golgi tendon organs
multi branches sensory nerve endings in tendons
progesterone
and esterogen, 2 hormones needed for female reproduction
gamete
cell that can unite with another gamete to form the cell that develops into a new individual
ovary
female sex gland
semineferous tubules
where sperm cells are made
testoserone
interstitial cells of leydig produce this male hormone
cowpers gland
2 pea shaped glands below prostate gland
vagina
muscular tube leading from vulva opening to the cervix, lower part of the birth canal
uterus
pear shaped, muscular organ, made of upper portion, body and neck
menstration
uterine bleeding occurring every 4 weeks suring female reproductive period
found in plasma
ALL D, hormones, nutrients and carbon dioxide
right atrium
superior and inferior vena cava empties in to
atherosclerosis
aka hardening of the arteries
hypertension
D- high blood pressure or HBP
brachicardia
heart rate below 60 beats per minute or slow heart rhythm
thrombosis
stationary blood clot
rapid heart beat
tachycardia
platelets are
D, neccesary for clotting, thrombocytes and formed elements in the blood
sinoatrial node or SA node
pacemaker of the heart
inherited blood disorder
sickle cell anemia
rh mom should be worried about fetalis
she should not be worried
heart is located
in thoracic and ventral cavity, mediastinum
slightly alkaline
healthy, normal blood ph
role of hemoglobing or rbcs
D-oxygen to the cells, carry hormones and carry carbon dioxide from the cells
universal donor
type O blood
hemophilia
x-linked inherited disorder usually males have ot
blood flow thru the heart in this order
right atrium right ventricle
left artium left ventricle
dermis
collegen and elastin are 2 types of connective tissue found here
dermis
thicker and deeper of 2 primary skin layers
boil
furnuncle or carbuncle
epidermis
layer of skin with keratin
not a function of skin
movement
appocrine
suderiferous gland found in axilla and genitals
sebaceous
gland the secretes sebum or oil to protect and lubricate the skin and hair
impetigo
contagious bacterial infection in kids
wart
3 kinds-common, plantar and veneral.....papillomavirus
primary function of muscular system except
D-protection
twitch
quick, jerky movement
motor unit
single motor neuron, along with muscle cells it attaches to is called
all or none
when mudcle fibers respond toa a threshhold stimulus and contrace completly
flexion
makes angle between bones smaller at the joint
atp, adenosine triphosphate
energy necessary for muscle contraction supplied by
voluntary muscles
D-striated and skeletal
extension
movement opposite of flexion
striated muscles
B-C cardiaca and skeletal
biceps brachii is prime mover
when elbow bends
helps maintain posture
tonic contraction of of type 1 muscles
smooth and involuntary
visceral muscles
isometric
lifting a 500 lb weight and and not moving it
example of rotation
shaking head no
during strenous exercise
D-oxygen debt and muscle contractions are tonic
isotonic
lifting book off table
muscles of a weightlifter compared to a runner
larger muscle cells
sarcomere
smallest most basic functional unit in skeletal muscle
when skeletal muscke contracts
D-heat, attachment is stationary bone at origin and attachment is more moveable at insertion
nerve cell-neuron made of
D-dendrites, axon, cell body
cauda equina
horse tail, formed by lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves
PNS made of
cranial and spinal nerves
sciatic nerve
biggest peripheral nerve
herpes zoster and shingles
viral infection that affects a single dermatone
brachial plexus
nerve plexus that supplies nerves to arm
arachnoid and pia mater between
cerebralspinal fluid
2 way neuron pathway
most simple nervous system pathway
interneuron
another name for connecting neuron
efferent
motor neuron that carry impulses away from the brain
dendrites
D-send nerve impulses to the cell body and away from the cell body of a neuron
axons
D- have axon terminals, carry impulses away from cell body and have schwann cells
Autonomic system subdivision of
PNS
cranial nerve controlls movement of neck and shoulder muscles
CN11
CNS made of
brain and spinal cord
12 pairs
number of cranial nerves
nerves of parasympathetic nervous system originate
in brain and spinal cord
bone cells
reffered to as osteons
flat bone
not a type of bone
lordosis
swayback
rheumatoid arthritis
inflammatory joint disease
sprain
injury to ligaments
hematopoiesis
the process of blood cell formation
open fracture
compound fracture
bone building cells are
osteoblasts
cartilage cells are
chondrocytes
in a hinge joint
a synovial membrane
osteoclasts
bone resorbing cells, cell eating phagocytes
diathrotic joints
D-make up most joints in body and have a joint capsule
epiphyseal plate
can grow as long as cartilage in still in there
amphiarthroses
Cartilaginous or fibrous joints, slightly moveable pubic syntheses
bursae
flattened fibrous sacs lined w/synovial membrane, contains synovial fluid between bones and tissuses
number or vertebrae in adult skeleton
26
scoliosis
lateral curvature of spine
periosteum
tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone, attachment side for tendons and muscles
number of ribs in thoractc cage
24
epiphysis
where hematopoiesis occurs in the long bones
dislocation
sublexation