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Sociology Chapter 9

social stratification
a strucutred ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society (key components- class, status,control and power)
absolute poverty
a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
Karl Marx's term for the capitalist's class compromsing the owners of the means of production
an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for the economic activities is the accumulation of profits
caste system
a herditary rank usually relgiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
class system
a social ranking based primiarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
horizontal social mobility
movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank
inTERgenerational mobility
changes in social position of children relative to their parents
inTRAgenerational mobility
changes in social position within a person's adult life
Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society (labor,workers, poor
relative poverty
floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society whatever their lifestyle are judged to ve disadvantaged in comparsion towith the nation as a whole
social inequality
a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige or power
social mobility
movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratifcation to another
vertical mobility
movement of an indivdual from one social position to another of a different rank (pogo stick)
inclusive term encompassing all person's material assests, including land, stocks and other types of property total value of assets minus outstanding debt
functionalist view on social stratification
facilitates filling of social positions
conflict perspective on social classes
group of people who share common interests resulting from their Authority relationships (Karl Max - capitalist - bourgeosie/ruling class; proletarian - labor workers, poor )
Herbert Gans
sociologist that applied functional analysis to the existence of poverty and argues that various segments of society actually benefit from the existence of the poor
Weber's view of Stratification include what components
Conflict view on purpose of social stratisfication
facilitates exploitation
Interactionist view on purpose of social stratisfication
influences people lifestyle
Functionalist attitude towards social inequality
necessary to some extent
conflict attitutde towards social inequality
excessive and growing
interactionist attitude towards social inequality
influences intergroup relationships
functionalist analysis of the wealthy
talented and skilled, creating opportunities for others
conflict analysis of the wealthy
interactionist analysis of the wealthy
EXHIBIT CONSPICuOUS CONSUMPTION and conspicuous leisure (is the spending of money for and the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power )
Benefits of having poor in our society
(Gans's work -functionalist)
1. dirty work -physcially hard will be perform at a low cost 2. creates job for those serbing the poor 3. having poor as deviant upholds conventional social values as norms such as hard work, honesty , thifty 4. existence of poor guarantees higher status of the rich 5. becaue of there lack of political power, poor often absorb cost of social change -can't have mental people live in affluent neghbors - halfway houses set up in low income places
world systems analysis (Wallerstein)
a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industralized ations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and eploited APPROACH - both functionalist and conflict
EX Core- US Semiperiphery - India Periphery - Egypt
custom of marrying outside the tribe, family clan or other social unit
social stratification is universal because....
1. society must make certain that its position are filled
2, some position are more important than others
3. important positions must be filled by more qualified people
4. to motivate more qualified people to fill position society must offer greater rewards
downward social mobility
person moving from a higher social class to a lower social class
criticism of Davis Moore thesis
1. prevents the discover of talent and potential
2. provides power to top and weakens those at bottom
3. creates hostility
Davis -Moore Thesis -stratification has benefits
importance / scarcity of personal for certain work >>>higher rewards for important tasks>>>motivation to obtain important position and perform tasks>>>>survival of society. Position at top requires investment of time, money & years of education and therfore should have higher rewards to encourage the best
semiperihery (6 nations)
Panama India China Parkistan Ireland Mexicp
Periphery (7 nations)
Afghan Haiti
Bolivia Philippines
Chad Vietnam
Core (6 nations)
Canada; US; Uk; Germany; France; Japan
chattel slavery
one personowns another; people treated as personal property
rule by chosen on principle of merit (namely intelligence, credentials, and education
Why is the American Dream going down
1. Many workers earning have stalled
2. multiple job holding is up
3. more jobs offer little income
4. many young people are remaining at home
5. many people are out of jobs
salaries & wages
proverty line
standard ste by the US governement for the purpose of counting the poor
Characteristic of Third World or Low Income Nations
1.low income ( per capita of less than US $905
2. human resource weakness (based on nutrition, health, education and adult literacy
3. economic vulnerabilty (instability of argriculture production, number of exports of goods and service)
marriage within a particular group in accordance with law or custon
blue collar work
skilled or unskilled, manufacturing, mining, construction, mechanical, maintenance (comedy radio called ________)
upward social mobility
change in person's social status resulting in that person receiving a higher position in their status system
white collar
refers to a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work,
20% of US families accoun for what percentage of all income
20% of the world's population account for what percentage of world's total wealth