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Aristotelian World View

Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.

Francis Bacon

(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.

Tycho Brahe

(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.

Robert Boyle

(1627-1691) Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.

Andrew Celsius

invented measurement of temperature (Celsius)

Nicolaus Copernicus

(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.

Heliocentric Theory

Sun is the center of the universe (Copernican)

Geocentric Theory

Earth is the center of the universe (Aristotelian)


(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.

Deductive Reasoning

Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.

Inductive Reasoning

Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.

Discourse on Methods

Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.


Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.

Gabriel Fahrenheit

developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.

Galileo Galilei

Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World

Gresham College

Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.

William Harvey

Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.

Carl Linnaeus

System Nature - developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.

Natural Law

universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.

Isaac Newton

English scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687)

Ptolemy's System

Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.

The Royal Society of London

Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.

Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities

Rousseau, discuss the innocence ofman and his corruption by society.


French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.


God buil the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.

Enlightened Despot

Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.


Promoting human welfare and social reform.

Second Treatise of Government

Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.


Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits.

The Spirit of Laws

Montesquieu, about separation of powers.

The Social Contract

Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.


Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.


French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws. "Power checks power." Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.

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