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Chapter 4 mastering Biology

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What is the size of the smallest object that can be viewed as a distinct, separate object with a light microscope?
0.2 micrometers in diameter
The electron microscope has been particularly useful in studying bacteria because __________.
bacteria are so small
What is the smallest entity that exhibits all the characteristics of life?
a cell
Which one of the following groups is composed of prokaryotic cells?
bacteria
A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that __________.
eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles; prokaryotic cells do not
the term used to indicate the part of a eukaryotic cell where organelles are suspended in fluid is _____.
cytoplasm
Which theory states that all living things are composed of cells?
cell theory
When using a microscope to view cells you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cells lack nuclei; therefore, you conclude that the cells must be a type of ________ cell.
prokaryotic
You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it is likely to be a(n) ________ cell.
plant
Which of the following is a feature of prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells?
pili
One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.
have membrane-enclosed structures called organelles, which are lacking in
In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?
cytoplasm
Over 100 years ago, microbiologist Paul Ehrlich talked about his concept of the ideal antibiotic as a "magic bullet" that could kill harmful bacteria but have minimal side effects for the infected person. How do antibiotics accomplish this goal?
by targeting structures found only in bacterial cells and not the host cells
The most commonly used microscope, which uses visible light to view cells, is called a __________.
light microscope
The fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane is characterized by __________.
molecules moving freely past one another
A study conducted by the National Institutes of Health on the infectivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) stated their hypothesis as __________.
MRSA bacteria lacking the ability to produce a protein (PSM) would be less deadly than those producing it
Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?
regulate the traffic of chemicals in and out of the cell
________ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.
Phospholipids
The extracellular matrix of animal cells ________.
protects and support cells
When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.
have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.
phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
Which of these distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell?
presence of a cell wall
Which of the following are the two main components of cellular membranes?
proteins and phospholipids
What is the genetic center of the eukaryotic cell?
the nucleus
Within the nucleus of a cell, long DNA molecules and associated proteins form fibers called _____.
chromatin
Coded genetic information is produced in the nucleus and transferred to the cytoplasm in a molecule called _____.
messenger RNA
The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ________.
chromatin
______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.
Genes
The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.
a double membrane
Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes.
46
Which of the following structures manufactures the components of ribosomes?
nucleolus
Some ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol of a cell, whereas other ribosomes _______.
are attached to the outside of the nucleus
Where does protein synthesis take place?
on ribosomes
Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______.
mRNA
What is the primary site of protein production in a eukaryotic cell?
ribosomes
The nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles make up the __________.
endomembrane system
Rough endoplasmic reticulum appears "rough" because __________.
many ribosomes stud the outside of the ER membrane
The Golgi apparatus mainly functions to modify _____.
proteins
A plant cell has a versatile compartment that stores organic nutrients, absorbs water, and contains poisons that protect against plant-eating animals. This compartment is the _____.
central vacuole
Which of the following correctly matches the organelle with its function?
vacuole ... storage
The endomembrane system includes ________.
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum
A hormone that will be secreted from a cell is manufactured by ribosomes ________.
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ________.
lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification
Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?
protein modification
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ________.
cell wall and a central vacuole
Cells in the thyroid gland produce and secrete thyroid hormone (a polymer of amino acids) that helps to regulate metabolism. What organelle is most likely abundant in cells of the thyroid gland?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.
liver
What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?
transport vesicles
Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping center of a company?
the Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes are responsible for ______.
digestion of organic matter inside the cell
If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.
digest itself
Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.
lysosomes
Vacuoles are ______.
membranous sacs
A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.
in fresh water
In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.
central vacuoles
Which of the following is stored in the lysosomes of the cell?
digestive enzymes
The function of the chloroplast is to __________.
convert light energy to chemical energy
Mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration, are found in __________.
plant cells and animal cells
Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ________.
stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP
Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?
the cristae of a mitochondrion
During a race such as a marathon, the skeletal muscle cells in your legs use a lot of energy to continually contract and power your muscles. What organelle is most likely abundant in skeletal muscle cells?
mitochondria
Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ________.
surrounded by two membranes
Which plant organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?
chloroplast
In addition to the nucleus, which of the following are organelles that contain their own DNA and ribosomes?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Microtubules are associated with ________.
all of the answer choices
Tobacco smokers (and those exposed to tobacco smoke) are at greater risk of an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy. Based on your understanding of the structures of the cytoskeleton, what is the BEST explanation?
Tobacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.
Which of the following are the components of the cytoskeleton that help move chromosomes when cells divide?
microtubules
In some eukaryotic cells, cilia and flagella are motile, cellular appendages that aid the cell in __________.
movement
Residents of Bangladesh are thought to be developing resistance to infection by Vibrio cholera by __________.
natural selection of humans who have mutations in genes that result in cells being less susceptible to the cholera toxin