44 terms


chapter 1 sociology
the systematic study of human society, social groups, and social interactions.
empirical research
is based on systematic, unbiased examination of evidence
sociological imagination
is the ability to see the realities of our lives in the context of common social structures, or social issues, other than as personal problems
karl marx
left 2 legacies, economic determination and the dialectic and viewed poverty and inequiality as human made conditions fostered by private property and capitalis
economic determinism
means that economic relationships provide the foundation on which all other social and political arrangements are built
is the process through which thesis and antithesis the produces a new idea (synthesis), is called
emile durkheim
one if major concerns was the balance btwn social regulation and personal freedom. he argued that community standards of morality, which he called the collective conscience, not only confine our behavior but also give u a sense of belonging and integration.
max weber
declaration that sociology must be value free
values free sociology
argued that sociology should be concerned with what IS and not what OUGHT TO BE
structural functionalism
addresses the question of social organization (structure) and how its maintained (function)
conflict theory
addresses the points of stress and conflict in society and the ways in which they contribute to social change. *compteting interests, each seeking to secure its own ends*
symbolic interactionism
addresses the subjective meanings of human acts and processes by which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings. *interacting individuals and groups*
is a set of norms specifying the rights and obligations associated with a position or status
social structure
is a recurrent pattern of relationships among groups of ppl, ex: marriage, religion
structural functional assumptions
stability, harmony and evolution
structural functional theory
functions, dysfunctions
positive effects on the stability of society
negative effects on the stability of society
conflict theory assumptions
competition, strucural inequality and social change
over scarce resources is at the heart of all social relationships
structural inequality
is built into all social structures
social change
occurs as a result of conflict rather than through adaptation
symbolic interactionism assumptions
symbolic meanings are important to understand behaviors we must learn what it means to the participants.
researching society
2 research goals: accurate description and accurate explanation
the research process
STEP 1: stating the problem
STEP 2: setting the stage by selection of variables
STEP 3: gathering data
STEP 4: finding patterns
STEP 5: generating theories
step one stating the problem
a problem may be stated in the form of a hypothesis
step two setting the stage
before gathering data, we have to select variables, define terms, and decide exactly which people to study
are measurable characteristics that vary from one individual or group to the next
independent variable
is the "cause" in the cause and effect relationship.
dependent variable
is the "effect" in the cause and effect relationship
refers to the process of deciding exactly how to measure a given variable
operational definition
describes the exact procedure by which a variable is measured
step 3 gathering data
experiment, survey research, participation observation, sampling, random samples
variables are manipulated to test theories; experimental group, control group
is a systematic selection of representative cases from the larger population
random samples
are chosen through a procedure that ensures that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being selected
step four finding patterns
analyzing data, look for patterns in data, and a correlation occurs where there is an empirical relationships btwn 2 variables
step 5 generating theories
explanations re usually embodied in a theory.
is an interrelated set of assumptions that explains observed patterns
experimental group
is the group in an experiement that experiences the independent variable
control group
is the group in an experiment that does not receive the independent variable
survey research
survey research involves asking a relatively large number of people the same set of standardized questions
existing data sets
Federal, local, and state
governments provide a wealth of information
to researchers in the form of already
compiled data sets.
participant observation
is conducting research
by participating,
interviewing, and
observing "in the field."
Strategies include:
• Participating
• Interviewing
• Observing