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What is the term for 'new growth'? 'undergone heritable genetic changes'?

Neoplasia, Neoplasm

What are the 2 basic components of neoplasms?

parenchyma, stroma

What is the term for formation and development of collagen-rich fibrous tissue? example?

desmoplasia; scirrhous carcinoma

What are 3 preneoplastic changes?

hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia

What are the 2 neoplastic changes?

metaplasia, dysplasia

What is the term for when specialized epithelium is replaced by less specialized epithelium? reversible?

metaplasia; yes

What are 2 causes of epithelial metaplasia?

chronic irritation, vit A deficiency

What is the term for when the entire thickness of the epithelium is replaced by dysplastic cells?

carcinoma in situ

Is there preservation of the basement membrane in carcinoma in situ?


What is the suffix of benign mesenchymal tumors? malignant mesenchymal tumors?

oma; sarcoma

What is the origin on mesenchymal tumors?


Which 2 cells lead to epithelial tumors?

endodermal, ectodermal

What is a benign epithelial tumor that projects from a mucosal surface?


when naming malignant tumors, what 4 things do you add?

organ, epithelium or gland structures, induces desmoplasia, produces mucin

What are mammary tumors, teratomas and nephroblastomas examples of?

mixed tumors

What germ cells do teratomas arise from?


Which types of tumors have a mixture of adult and embryonic tissues?


What is another term for undifferentiated/lack of differentiation?


What are the 4 characteristics of anaplasia?

pleomorphism, abnormal nucleus, high mitotic rate, loss of polarity

What are the 3 types of spread of malignant tumors?

transcoelomic, lymphatic, hematogenous

What is the term for the seeding of body cavities and surfaces?


What are the steps of the metastatic cascade? 4

loss of caderin, integrin bind to ECM, degradation of BM and ECM, migration stimulated by autocrine GF

What is the term for progressive accumulation of heritable changes in tumor cells?

tumor heterogeneity

What is generated during tumor heterogeneity?


Which type of neoplasia infiltrate the gastric wall and spread throughout peritoneum?

gastric carcinomas

Which stain do you use to diagnose mucinous gastric carcinoma?

Alcain blue/PAS

What is the incidence of age-adjusted cancer in dogs and humans? (per 100,000)


What 3 things are observed in tumor cells?

DNA mutations, epigenetic changes, chromosomal alterations

What are the 3 steps of tumor development?

initiation, promotion, progression

How is a tumor formed?

clonal expansion of single precursor cell with genetic damage

What are the 4 classes of normal regulatory genes?

proto-oncogenes, tumor suppuressor, apoptosis, DNA repair

Which gene acts as a molecular policeman when facing damage to the genome?


What are the 7 changes in cell physiology that together determine malignant phenotype?

growth signals, apoptosis evasion, DNA repair defect, limitless replicative potential, angiogenesis, invade/metastasize, escape immunity

What can tumor Ag be used for? 3

diagnosis, monitoring, immunotherapy

What are the major immune defense mechanism against tumors?


What are the secondary immune defense mechanisms against tumors? 2WBC, 1 cytokine


What activates MO?


what causes dimerization, protein cross-links in DNA molecules, formation of cholesterol alpha oxide?

UV radiation

What is the term for an indirect and remote effect that is caused by tumor cell products that cause unexplained symptoms in cancer patients?


What is the most frequently observed paraneoplastic syndrome - esp in dogs?

hypercalcemia of malignancy

What is hypercalcemia of malignancy due to?

production of calcemic humoral substances

What is the calcemic humoral substance produced during hypercalcemia of malignancy?


Is hypercalcemia due to osteolysis by skeletal metastases a paraneoplastic syndrome?


What are the 6 signs of hypercalcemia?

weakness, arrhythmia, anorexia, vomiting, renal failure, pupd

What 4 things besides tumors cause hypercalcemia?

hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, hypoadrenocorticism, hypervitaminosis D

What 2 things is hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy known as?

Marie's Disease

What is the disease: multiple benign cutaneous lesions with bilateral renal disease?

nodular dermatofibrosis

What are the 3 things caused by underlying bilateral renal disease?

polycystic kidneys, renal cystadenomas/ cystadenocarcinomas

What is used to diagnose tumors?




How are tumors graded?

I to IV

What is involved with tumor staging?

size of pimary tumor, spread to ln, hematogenous metastases

What is the system of staging?


What does T stand for? N? M?

primary tumor, LN involvement; blood borne metastases

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