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What is the term for formation and development of collagen-rich fibrous tissue? example?
desmoplasia; scirrhous carcinoma
What is the term for when specialized epithelium is replaced by less specialized epithelium? reversible?
What is the term for when the entire thickness of the epithelium is replaced by dysplastic cells?
carcinoma in situ
when naming malignant tumors, what 4 things do you add?
organ, epithelium or gland structures, induces desmoplasia, produces mucin
What are the 4 characteristics of anaplasia?
pleomorphism, abnormal nucleus, high mitotic rate, loss of polarity
What are the steps of the metastatic cascade? 4
loss of caderin, integrin bind to ECM, degradation of BM and ECM, migration stimulated by autocrine GF
What is the term for progressive accumulation of heritable changes in tumor cells?
Which type of neoplasia infiltrate the gastric wall and spread throughout peritoneum?
What 3 things are observed in tumor cells?
DNA mutations, epigenetic changes, chromosomal alterations
What are the 4 classes of normal regulatory genes?
proto-oncogenes, tumor suppuressor, apoptosis, DNA repair
What are the 7 changes in cell physiology that together determine malignant phenotype?
growth signals, apoptosis evasion, DNA repair defect, limitless replicative potential, angiogenesis, invade/metastasize, escape immunity
what causes dimerization, protein cross-links in DNA molecules, formation of cholesterol alpha oxide?
What is the term for an indirect and remote effect that is caused by tumor cell products that cause unexplained symptoms in cancer patients?
What is the most frequently observed paraneoplastic syndrome - esp in dogs?
hypercalcemia of malignancy
What are the 6 signs of hypercalcemia?
weakness, arrhythmia, anorexia, vomiting, renal failure, pupd
What 4 things besides tumors cause hypercalcemia?
hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, hypoadrenocorticism, hypervitaminosis D
What is the disease: multiple benign cutaneous lesions with bilateral renal disease?
What are the 3 things caused by underlying bilateral renal disease?
polycystic kidneys, renal cystadenomas/ cystadenocarcinomas
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