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Use LEARN to master spelling and become familiar to recognition level of of action, origin, and insertion. (interesting notes are in parenthesis)

orbicularis oculi

A: Closure of eyelids. O: maxilla, frontal bone. I: same (around eye, in lacrimal area)

orbicularis oris

A: Closes and protrudes lips. Compresses lips against teeth (whistling, forming letters during speech) O: maxilla, mandible I: lips


A: Elevates mandible and slightly protracts it. (clenching, chewing (mashing) food.) O: zygomatic bone, maxilla I: angle and ramus of mandible


A: Contraction of one side (side to side rotation of head). Key landmark in the neck. O: sternum, clavicle. I: temporal, occipital (mastoid process)


A: Draws down the lower lip and angle of mouth, tenses skin of neck; helps depress mandible (Tenses the neck when shaving/frowning.) O: fascia covering pectoralis major and deltoid. I: lower mandible

pectoralis major

A: adducts the humerus, extends, rotates arm medially, elevates thorax. O: clavicle, sternum, cart. of ribs. I: humerus

biceps brachii

A: flexes and supinates the forearm. O: scapula. I: radius


A: flexes elbow. O:humerus. I: ulna

triceps brachii

A: Extends forearm and helps stabilize shoulder. The only muscle on the posterior upper arm. O: scapula and humerus. I: ulna


A: flexion, rotation, abduction, extension of the arm (swinging while you walk). O: scapula, clavicle. I: humerus


A: supports or depresses scapula and helps move arm. O: occipital bone; spines of C7 and all Ts. I: clavicle, scapula

latissimus dorsi

A: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates the arm, draws shoulder donward and backward (power stroke - hammering, swimming, rowing). O: spinous processes of lower T and all Ls, ilium. I: humerus

rectus abdominus

A: Compresses the abdominal cavity and flexes the vertebral column. (Abs used in situps, form six pack). O: pubic symphysis. I: xiphoid process, ribs 5-7

external oblique

A: Compresses the abdominal cavity. Laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column. (trunk rotation). O: The lower 8 ribs I: iliac crest, linea alba


A: Flattens on contraction increasing the vertical dimensions of the thorax (inspiration). Assists with return of venous blood and lymth to the heart. O: xiphoid process, lower six costal cartilages (ribs), L1-3. I: central tendon

gluteus maximus

A: Extends and rotates thigh, assist in raising trunk from flexed position. Adduction of the hip. (Maintains upright posture. Active mainly during strenuous activities such as running, jumping, and climbing.) O: sacrum,coccyx, ilium. I: femur, iliotibial tract.


A: Flexes, rotates, abducts hip joint. Flexes torso toward leg. Assists in rotation of knee. (Helps move femur in many directions. Used in yoga-style sitting. The longest muscle in the body.) O:ilium I: tibia

rectus femoris

A: Extends leg at the knee, flexes thigh at the hip. (Powerful knee extensor used in sports and rising from sitting. One of the four quadriceps femoris muscles). O: ilium I: patella

vastus lateralis

A: Extends the leg at the knee and draws patella laterally. (The most lateral of the quadriceps femoris, trouble here called runner's knee.) O: femur (lateral) I: patella (and indirectly to tibia)

vastus medialis

A: Extends the leg at the knee and draws the patella medially. (The most medial of the quadriceps femoris group.) O: femur (medial) I: patella (indirectly to tibia)

biceps femoris

A: Flexes and laterally rotates knee joint and extends thigh. (Prime mover in hip extension and knee flexion. The most lateral of the hamstring group.) O: ischium, femur I: fibula, tibia


A: Flexes and rotates leg at knee joint, extends thigh at hip. (Slows down the leg at the end of its swing.) O: ischial tuberosity I: tibia


A: Flexes and rotates leg at knee joint, extends thigh at hip. (The most medial hamstring). O: ischial tuberosity. I: tibia


A: Plantar flexion. Stabilizes the leg over the foot. (Is under the gastrocnemius.) O: fibula, tibia I: calcaneous


A: Plantar flexion of the ankle, flexion of the knee. (point foot, bend knee.) O: femur I: calcaneous


A. Pulls the scalp forward and backward and assists in wrinkling the forehead and raising the eyebrows. Connects the occipital belly and the frontal belly via the galea aponeurotica. O: Occipital bone, I: frontal bone.


A: wrinkling forehead, raising eyebrows. O: Galea aponeurotica. I: Fascia of facial muscles (under eyebrows).


A: pulls scalp forward and backward O: occipital and temporal bones I: Galea aponeurotica (notice O/I reversed for the forehead area, GA is not the I point for both.)


A: raises ears and tightens scalp. O: Galea aponeurotica. I: Fascia above auricle


A: Elevates and retracts mandible, assists in side to side movement. Keeps jaw at rest. O: temporal bone I: mandible

zygomaticus major

A: Draws angle of mouth upward and outward. O: zygomatic bone. I: mouth muscles esp. orbicularis oris


A: Flexes the elbow, pronation and supination of forearm. (hammering). O: humerus I: radius


A: Adducts thigh at hip joint, flexes leg at knee joint. Medial rotation. (Sore after horseback riding). O: pubis. I: tibia

tensor fasciae latae

A: Abduction, rotation, and flexion of thigh. Keeps the ITBT taut. Stabilizes hip. (Braces the knee and hip when walking; mostly tendon, the muscle part looks like a pocket). O: ilium (iliac crest). I: iliotibal tract, tibia.

iliotibial tract

A: Not a muscle. Is an important band of collagen fibers that extend along the lateral surface of the thigh. I: tibia

adductor longus

A: Adducts thigh, assists flexion and medial rotation. (The most anterior of the adductor muscles.) O: pubis I: femur

adductor magnus

A. Adducts thigh, assists flexion and medial rotation. (The largest of the adductor group. The most anterior of the adductor muscles.) O: pubis and ischium I: femur

tibialis anterior

A: dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot. (Superficial muscle of the shin. Irritation causes shin splints. Paralysis causes foot dragging.) O: tibia. I: cuneiform and first metatarsal bones.

fibularis (Peroneus) longus

A: plantar flexion and eversion of the foot. (Found on the lateral surface of the proximal half of the lower leg (top outer part) along the fibula.) O: fibula, I: cuneiform and first metatarsal.

calcaneous tendon

A: same as gastrocnemius and soleus. (Not a muscle, important tendon that connects gastrocnemius and soleus to calcaneous.) O: G&S calf muscles. I: calcaneus bone.

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